Showing posts with label Important information. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Important information. Show all posts

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Mahajanpada


Mahajanpada


Mahajanapada literally means great kingdom. They flourished in north / northwestern parts of India before the rise of Buddhism.  The various regions of the Indian subcontinent were first divided into districts, a clear demarcation by boundaries.  Many Janpad of 600 BC further developed into large political bodies.  These states are known as Mahajanapada in Buddhist traditions. India was divided into 16  janpad in the sixth century AD before the birth of Buddha.  We get this information from the Buddhist Anguttar nikaay. State or administrative units in ancient India were called 'Mahajanapadas'.  Some janpad are mentioned in the later Vedic period.  They have been mentioned many times in Buddhist texts.
In the sixth century BCE, Vayakaran Panini mentions 22 Mahajanapadas.  Three of them - Magadha, Kosal and Vats have been described as important.
More information about them is found in the early Buddhist and Jain texts.  Although a total of sixteen Mahajanapadas are named, these nomenclatures differ in different texts.
 Historians believe that this difference is due to changing political circumstances at different times.  In addition, the information of the makers of these lists may also be different from their geographical location.  There are 16 Mahajanapadas mentioned in Mahavastu, a Buddhist text. The Mahajanapadas are mentioned from the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya and the Jain literature Bhagwati Sutra, which has 16 numbers. Of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, Magadha, Kosal, Vats and Avanti were the most powerful. Among sixteen Mahajanapadas, Ashmak was the only a janpad.  Which was located in South India. Gandhara and Kamboj Mahajanapada were located in Pakistan. Of all the Mahajanapadas, the maximum number of (8) Mahajanapadas were in modern Uttar Pradesh. Anga, Vajji and Magadha Mahajanapada were located in Bihar. In the sixth century BC, the first republican state of the world 'Vajji Sangh' also emerged. Malla and Shakya were other important republics in the sixth century BC. They are referred to by Buddhist and other texts as the sixteen great states.  The sixteen Mahajanapadas include Kasi, Kosal, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchal, Machha, Surasen, Ashmak, Avanti, Gandhara and Kambhoj.
The sixteen states named Mahajanapada are found in the early texts of Buddhism and Jainism.  The list of names of Mahajanapadas is not the same in these texts but names like Vajji, Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, Panchal, Gandhara and Avanti are often found. It is known from this that these Mahajanapadas must have been known as important Mahajanapada.  Mostly the Mahajanapadas were ruled by the king, but a group of people ruled in states known as Gana and Sangha, every person of this group was called a king. Each Mahajanapada had a capital which was surrounded by a fort.  The sixteen Mahajanapadas of India date back to the sixth century BCE.  These Mahajanapadas were:
Avanti: The state of modern Malwa, whose capital was Ujjayini and Mahishmati.  Ujjaini (Ujjain) is a major city in the state of Madhya Pradesh.  The Mahabharata describes Sahadeva conquering Avanti. This janpada has been called Malava in the Jain text Bhagwati Sutra.  This janpada broadly included the middle part of present-day Malwa, Nimar and Madhya Pradesh.  According to the Puranas, Avanti was founded by Yaduvanshi Kshatriyas. Fourth century BC  The janpada of Avanti was included in the Maurya Empire and Ujjayini was the capital of the western province of the Magadha Empire.  During the Gupta period, Chandragupta Vikramaditya again conquered Avanti and threw foreign power from there. In the medieval period, this city was mainly called Ujjain and it is described as a main place in the province of Malwa.  In the Jain text Vividhairtha Kalpa, the name of the state of Malwa is Avanti.
Mahakala is counted in the Jyotirlingas of Shiva.  For this reason, this city has also been called Shivpuri.  The ancient Avanti was located in the place of present-day Ujjain, this fact is proved by the fact that the river Kshipra which flows nowadays near Ujjain is also mentioned in ancient literature near Avanti.
Ashmak: Patan was the capital of this region situated between the rivers Narmada and Godavari.  In the modern period, this region is called Maharashtra.  In Buddhist literature, this state, which was situated on the Godavari coast, is mentioned in many places. In Suttanipat, Asmak is mentioned on the Godavari coast.  Its capital was at Potan, Paudanya or Paithan (Pratishthanpur).  Panini also mentions Ashmakas in the Ashtadhyayi.  In Sonanandajatak, Asmak is said to be related to Avanti. The king named Ashmak is mentioned in Vayu Purana and Mahabharata.  Probably this district is called Ashmak by the name of this king.  Greek writers refer to the Asscanoe people in northwestern India.  They may have had historical connections with the southern Ashwakas or it may have been the transformation of the Ashwakas.
Anga: Munger and Bhagalpur districts of present-day of Bihar.  In the Mahajanapada era, the capital of Anga Mahajanapada was Champa.  There is an incident in the Mahabharata text that Acharya Drona organized a competition in Hastinapur to demonstrate the war skills of the Kaurava princes.
Arjun emerged as the highest talented archer in this competition.  Karna challenged Arjun to a duel battle in this competition.  But Kripacharya turned it down saying that Karna is not a prince. Therefore, he cannot participate in this competition.  Therefore, Duryodhana had declared Karna as the king of Anga.  At first the Anga was under Magadha but later Bhishma won the Anga, it came under Hastinapur.
Kamboj: In ancient Sanskrit literature, there are many references about the Kamboj states or the Kamboj resident here, which shows that the country of Kamboj was largely from Kashmir to Hindukush. In Valmiki-Ramayana, the best horses of Kamboj, Valhik and Vanayu states are described to be in Ayodhya.  According to the Mahabharata, Arjuna had defeated the residents of Dardistan as well as the Kambojas in the context of Digvijaya Yatra in his north direction. In the Mahabharata it is said that Karna reached Rajpur and won the Kambojas, its proved that Rajpur a city of Kamboj.  In the Vedic period, Kamboj was the center of Aryan culture as indicated by the mention of vansh-Brahmin, but over a period of time, Kamboj came to be deemed out of Aryan-culture when Aryanism advanced towards the east. Yuvanchwang has also described Kambojas as uncultured and with violent tendencies.  According to Rajpur, Nandinagar and Ricedevies of Kamboj, the cities named Dwarka are mentioned in the literature. The Mahabharata describes several kambojas kings, among whom Sudarshan and Chandravarman are the main ones.  This republic would have merged under Chandragupta's empire in the Mauryan period.
Kashi: Another name of Varanasi, 'Kashi' was famous as a janpada in ancient times and Varanasi was its capital.  This is also confirmed by the travelogue of Fahian, a Chinese traveler visiting India in the fifth century. It is mentioned in the Harivanshpurana that the descendant of Pururava who settled 'Kashi' was King 'Kash'.  Hence their descendants are called 'Kashi'.  It is possible that on the basis of this, the name of this district is named 'Kashi'.  A mythological myth associated with naming Kashi is also available. It is mentioned that Vishnu called this area a free zone after the fall of Parvati's Muktamaya Kundal and named the shrine Kashi due to its inexplicable ultimate light. It is said that Kashi is situated on the trident of Lord Shankar, that is why it is considered an area outside the earth.  It is also said that the entire earth is destroyed during the Holocaust, but the city of Kashi is safe due to Shankar being on the trident.
Kuru: Modern Haryana and Delhi included the western part of the Yamuna River.  Its capital was modern Delhi (Indraprastha).  An ancient state whose north part of the Himalayas was known as 'Uttar Kuru' and the south part of Himalayas as 'South Kuru'. According to Bhagwat, Yudhishthra's Rajsuya Yajna and Shri Krishna married Rukmini here.  A son of Agnidh was named 'Kuru', a famous Chandravanshi king mentioned in Vedic literature.  Generally, the children of Dhritarashtra are known as 'Kaurava', but the descendants of Kuru were both Kaurava-Pandavas. Famous janpada of ancient India, whose position was in present day Delhi-Meerut region.  In the Mahabharata period, Hastinapur was the capital of Kuru-Janpad district.  It is known from the Mahabharata that the ancient capital of Kuru was Khandavaprastha.  It is known from many accounts of Mahabharata that Kurujangal, Kuru and Kurukshetra were the three main parts of this vast janpada. The main Kuru janpada was near Hastinapur (District Meerut, U.P.).  It was situated to the south by Khandava, to the north by Turdhan and to the west by Parinah.  It is possible that these were the names of various forests.  The Kuru janpada included the present Thanesar, Delhi and the northern Ganges Dwaba (part of the Meerut-Bijnor districts). In the Mahabharata, the Indian Kuru-Janapadas have been called Dakshina Kuru and they are also mentioned along with the North-Kurus.  According to Mahasut-Som-Jataka, the expansion of Kuru district was three hundred Kos. It seems that after this period and as a result of the increasing power of Magadha, which was fully developed with the establishment of the Maurya Empire, Kuru, whose capital was flew into the Ganges in the time of Hastinapur King Nichakshu, which was left by this king, made his capital in Kaushambi which is part of Vats janpada and gradually merged into the trough of forgetfulness.
Kosala: Famous district of Northern India, whose capital was the world-famous city of Ayodhya.  Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh included the areas of Gonda and Bahraich.  It was located in the coastal region of Saryu (a tributary of the Ganges river) flow area. The Vedashruti River flowed on the southern border of Kosala state during the Ramayana period.  Sri Ramachandraji crossed the Kosala border before crossing the Gomti River on his way to the forest from Ayodhya. The passage of Vedashruti and Gomti is mentioned in Ayodhya Kand and after crossing the Sayandika or Sayi River, Shri Rama showed Sita the land of the prosperous (Kosal) kingdom given to many Janpadas left behind and given to Manu through  Ikshvaku. During the Ramayana period, this country was divided into two districts - north
 Kosal and South Kosal.  Rani Kaushalya of King Dasharatha was probably Rajakanya of South Kosala (Raipur-Bilaspur district, Madhya Pradesh).  Ayodhya was a very prosperous city during the Ramayana period. In the Mahabharata, Bhimsen's Digvijay Yatra mentions the defeat of Kosala-Naresh Brihadbal.  The sixth and fifth centuries BC  Kosal was a powerful kingdom similar to Magadha, but gradually the importance of Magadha increased and with the establishment of the Maurya Empire, Kosal became a part of the Magadha Empire.
Gandhara: Western region of Pakistan and eastern region of Afghanistan.  Many times people make the mistake of linking it to modern Kandahar which was actually located some south of the region.  The main center of this region was modern Peshawar and the surrounding areas. The principal cities of this Mahajanapada were - Purushpur (modern Peshawar) and Taxila was its capital.  It existed from 600 BCE to the 11th century.  By the 13th century, the Indian name of Yunnan was Gandhar.  The mention of this region is found in the inscriptions of Mahabharata and Ashoka. According to the Mahabharata, the queen of Dhritarashtra and mother of Duryodhana was the princess of Gandhari Gandhar.  Nowadays it is the region of Rawalpindi and Peshawar districts of Pakistan.  Taxila and Pushkalavati were famous cities here. After being a part of Ashoka's empire, it remained under Persian and Kushan kingdom for some time.  In the historical follow-up, Kautilya has been described as the jewel of the Taxila university. Ayodhyapati Ramchandra ji's brother Bharata conquered the Gandharva country and settled the towns of Taxila and Pushkalavati at the behest of Kekay-Naresh Yudhajit.  During the Mahabharata period, the Gandhar country had a close relationship with Hastinapur.  Gandhari, Dhritarashtra's wife, was Rajakanya of Gandhar.  Shakuni was her brother.
Chedi: Presently the area of ​​Bundelkhand comes under it.  The ancient name of the area between the Ganges and the Narmada was Chedi.  It was also among the sixteen Mahajanapadas mentioned in Buddhist texts.  Once upon a time Shishupala was the famous king of this place.
He was about to get married to Rukmini that Sri Krishna kidnapped Rukmini, only after that when Shree Krishna was given the first place in Yudhishthra's Rajasuya Yajna, Shishupala strongly condemned him.  On this, Shri Krishna killed him.
The present-day Chanderi town in Gwalior region of Madhya Pradesh is said to be the capital of the ancient Chedi state.  The Chedi janpada in the Mahabharata, along with many other janpada, has been counted among the contemporary janpada of Kuru. The residents of Chedi janpada have been praised in Karnaparva.  During the Mahabharata, Krishna's rival Shishupala was the ruler of Chedi.  Its capital is said to be Shuktmati.
Vrijhi: The Buddhist Republic of North Bihar, which has been called Vrijji in Buddhist literature.  In fact, this republic was part of a state-union with eight other members (Attakul) of whom Videha, Lichhavi and gyaatrikagana were famous. During the Buddha's lifetime, the struggle continued for many days in the Magadha emperor Ajatshatru and the Republic of Vrijji.  According to the Mahavagga, two of Ajatashatru's ministers Sunidh and Varshakara (Vasakara) had built a fort at Pataligram (Pataliputra) to stop the invasions of the Vrijjis. The Mahaparinibban Sutant also describes the opposition of Ajatashatru and the Vrijjis.  Vajji is probably a variation of Vrajhi.  Vajri's nomenclature in the opinion of Bulhar, Ashoka's inscription no.  Is in 13.  The Jain Tirthankara Mahavira was the prince of the Republic of Vrijji.
Vats: Allahabad and Mirzapur districts of modern Uttar Pradesh used to come under it.  The capital of this district was Kaushambi (district Allahabad Uttar Pradesh). The name of Vatsa state is also mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana that while going to Ramchandra forest with the same effect as Lokpal, crossing the Mahanadi Ganga soon reached the rich and happy Vatsa state. This explanation proves that during the Ramayana period, the river Ganges flowed on the border of Vatsa and Kosala janpadas.  At the time of Gautama Buddha, the king of the Vatsa janpada was Udayan, who married Vasavadatta, the daughter of the avanti-king Chandapradyot. At this time Kaushambi was counted among the great cities of northern India.  According to the Mahabharata, Bhimsen had conquered the Vatsa land in the context of Digvijay of the east.
Panchal: is the ancient name of the region enclosed by the districts of Bareilly, Badaun and Farrukhabad in western Uttar Pradesh.  It was spread in the Gangetic plain between Kanpur to Varanasi.  It also had two branches - the first branch was Ahichatra, the capital of north  Panchal and the second branch was Kampilya, the capital of South Panchal. Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas, was also called Panchali for being the princess of Panchal. The Satapatha Brahmin mentions a city named Panchala's Parivaka or Parichaka, which according to Weber is the Ekachaka of the Mahabharata.
Panchal was the collective name of five ancient clans.  They were Kivi, Keshi, Srnjaya, Turvasas and Somak.  Panchalas and Kuru janpadas used to fight with each other.  It is known from the Adiparva of Mahabharata that Dronacharya, the guru of the Pandavas, with the help of Arjuna, defeated Panchalaraja Drupada and left only South Panchala (whose capital was Kampilya) and took over North Panchal. Thus during the Mahabharata period, Panchal was situated on both the northern and south banks of the Ganges.  Drupada previously lived in the city of Ahichatra or Chhatravati.  Draupadi's Swayamvara described in the Mahabharata Adiparva took place in Kampilya.  Bhimsen, in his former country Digvijaya Yatra, in many ways understood and convinced the Panchal residents.
Magadha: was the most powerful janpada in northern India during the Buddhist period and later.  Its position was largely in the state of South Bihar.  The modern Patna and Gaya district were included in it.  Its capital was Giriwarj .  Brihadratha and Jarasandha were the previous kings of Lord Buddha here. It was located in southern Bihar which later became the most powerful Mahajanapada of North India.  The range of Magadha Mahajanapada extended from the Ganges in the north to the Vindhya Mountains in the south, from Champa in the east to the Son River in the west.  The ancient capital of Magadha was Rajagriha.  Later, the capital of Magadha was established in Pataliputra. In the Magadha state, the then powerful state of Kaushal, Vatsa and Avanti was merged with his janpada.  Thus Magadha expanded into Akhand Bharat and the history of ancient Magadha became the history of India. The area of ​​Patna and Gaya district was known as Magadha in ancient times.  During the time of Gautama Buddha, Bimbisara was ruled in Magadha and then his son Ajatshatru.  At this time, there was a lot of conflict with the Kosala janpada and Magadha, although the daughter of Kosal-King Prasenjit was married to Bimbisara. As a result of this marriage, Magadharaj janpada of Kashi was received as a dowry.  After them, during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka, the power of the influential kingdom of Magadha reached its peak of glory and Pataliputra, the capital of Magadha was the focal point of political power across India. The importance of Magadha remained even after this for many centuries and at the beginning of the Gupta period, the capital of the Gupta Empire remained in Pataliputra for a long time.  Bimbisara is considered the de facto founder of the Magadha Empire. Bimbisara made Girivraj (Rajgir) his capital.  It expanded its empire by adopting its policy of matrimonial relations (Kaushal, Vaishali and Punjab).
Matsya: This included the areas of Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur districts of Rajasthan.  A famous janpada of the Mahabharata period, whose status has been considered in the variable state of Alwar-Jaipur.  Virat ruled this janpada and its capital was in a city called Uppalav. Virat Nagar was the second major city of Matsya janpada.  Sahadeva conquered the Matsya state in his Digvijay Yatra.  Bhima also conquered the matasyas.  The Pandavas spent a year of their unknown abode in the Matsya country by staying with Virat.
Malla: It was also a federation and its territories were areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh.  The first definite mention of Malla country is probably in Valmiki Ramayana in such a way that Ramchandra ji settled Chandrakanta in the land of Malla country for Lakshmana's son Chandraketu which was divine like heaven. There are many mentions in the Mahabharata about the mahajanpada of Malla.  Buddhist literature describes the two capitals of Malla janpada as Kushavati and Paava.  There are many references to the rivalry of the Mallas and Lichchhavis in Buddhist and Jain literature. During the political rise of Magadha, the janpada of Malla could not stand in front of the expanding power of this empire.  The fourth century BC  Chandragupta merged into the great empire of Maurya.
Shursen: Shursen Mahajanapada was the famous janpada of North-India with its capital at Mathura.  The region was probably named after Shatrughna, the ruler of Madhurapuri (Mathura),  after the slaying of Lavanasura. Shatrughan was named this janpada his son Shursen. Shursen had established a new city in place of old Mathura, which is described in the Uttarkand of Valmiki Ramayana.  The Mahabharata mentions the victory of Sahadeva over the Shursen-Janpad.  In the Vishnu Purana, the residents of Shursen are probably called Shur and they are mentioned with Abhiras.



Saturday, March 7, 2020

✡️What is Vyuh(array)?

✡️What is Vyuh(array)?

 In ancient times, a vyuh of military operations was created by the commander in war so that the  easily entered into the enemy army zone and king &chief generals could be captured or killed.

In this, their entire army is arranged in a special shape or property with the name of the vyuh (array). This type of the vyuh composition ,even the smallest army starts to look huge and can face the biggest army.
Vyuh design is called the position of soldiers in a particular order for war. Vyuh is mentioned in the mythological text Mahabharata.  In the war of Mahabharata, many types of "Vyuh"were composed by Pandavas and Kauravas. Vyuh means "a swarm of soldiers" or "a part of the army."


 While creating a vyuh, thats had to keep in mind what the army's spread should be?  How should the various army-departments be divided?  That is, what number of divisions should be located in each place, which commanders should stand and conduct military operations, in which main places, etc.
To much thinks of all these things was to keep an efficient arrangement of both attack and defense operations. It was the main purpose of construct a vyuh. In the war, the armies of both sides created vyuh and each other side by bringing them into the vyuh and defeated the warriors .

The following were the vyuh created by the Pandavas and Kauravas in the Mahabharata war.

 1. Chakravyuh
 2. Vajravyuh
 3. Crouch vyuh
 4. Ardhchandra vyuh
 5. Mandal vyuh
 6. Chakrasakat vyuh
 7. Magar vyuh
 8. Aurmi vyuh
 9. Garuda vyuh
 10. Srinagantaka vyuh
 11. Sarvatomukh vyuh

1.  Chakravyuh

 Everyone has heard about it.  It was composed by Guru Dronacharya on the thirteenth day of the war.  Duryodhana was just in the middle of this chakravyuh. But the seven maharathis were in different layers of this vyuh. Jayadratha was at the entrance of this vyuh.  Only Abhimanyu was able to penetrate this vyuh.  But he could not cross the last gate ... and later he was murdered by 7 maharathis. Some more information about this vyuh will be found later.

2.  Vajra vyuh

 On the first day of the Mahabharata war, Arjuna decorated his army in the shape of this vjra.  It used to be like Vajra of Indradev to see its shape, so this type of vyuh is called "Vajra vyuh"!

3.Crounch vyuh

 Crouch is a bird.  Which is called Demoiselle Crane in modern language. It is a species of stork. This vyuh is shaped like this bird. On the second day of the war, Yudhishthira suggested the Panchal son to decorate the Pandava army with this same crounch vyuh ... King Drupada was on the head of this bird, and Kuntibhoja was in place of its eyes.  Arya Satyaki's army was at its neck.  Bhima and Panchal sons were in place of its wings. The five sons of Draupadi and Arya Satyaki were deployed under the protection of its wings. In this way we can see that this vyuh was very powerful and effective.  Pitamah Bhishma himself decorated his Kaurava army with this vyuh.  Bhurishrava and Shalya were protecting its wings.  Somdatta, Ashwatthama, Kripacharya and Kritavarma were handling the various parts of this bird.

4.  Ardhchandra vyuh

 It was composed by Arjuna in response to the Garuda vyuh of Kauravas. Panchal Son assisted Arjuna in creating this vyuh. It had Bhima on its right side. It had armies of Drupada and Virat naresh in its upward direction. Just ahead of them were the Panchal sons, Neel, Dhritaketu, and Shikhandi. Yudhishthira was in the middle of it. Satyaki, Draupadi's five sons, Abhimanyu, Ghatotkacha, Kokay Bandhu were to the left of this array and Arjuna were himself with Sachchidananda Swaroop Bhagavan Sri Krishna on the front.

5.  Mandal vyuh

 Bhishma Pitamah had decorated the Kaurava army by this mandal vyuh on the seventh day of the war.  It was formed in circular form.  This was one of the most difficult vyuh, but still the Pandavas broken  it by the Vajra vyuh.

6.  Chakrasakat vyuh

 After the killing of Abhimanyu, when Arjuna was annihilated to take the life of Jayadratha, Guru Dronacharya composed this vyuh to protect Jayadratha on the fourteenth day of the battle!

7.  Magar vyuh

 The vyuh was shaped like a crocodile.  On the fifth day, soon after sunrise, Bhishma, the grandfather of the Kauravas, created this vyuh.  With a large army, they moved towards the Pandavas and started raining arrows.  Satyaki stopped Dronacharya.  Bhishma forced Satyaki to flee the battle

8.Aurami vyuh

 Aurami refers to the sea.  This vyuh looked like the waves of the sea.  In this vyuh , the enemy used to have confusion about the army's actual capability.

9. Garuda vyuh

 On the third day on behalf of the Kauravas, Bhishma created a Garuda vyuh at the battle site.  Instead of the beak in his front, he stood on his own.  Acharya Drona and Kritavarma was in place of both eyes. Ashwatthama and Kripacharya stood in the head.  With this vyuh, Bhishma caused a terrible destruction in the army of Pandavas.  Sri Krishna asks Arjuna to slay Bhishma, but Arjuna was unable to fight with enthusiasm, causing Shrikrishna himself to rush to kill Bhishma.  Arjuna then assures that he will fight the war with full enthusiasm.

10.  Shreengatka vyuh

 Among Pandavas, Arjuna was an expert in creating this vyuh.  This vyuh looked like a building.  It was designed to entice the enemy army into confusion.

11.  Sarvotmukh vyuh

 The Kauravas attacked the Vajra vyuh of Pandavas with sarvotmukh vyuh.  The pandavas suffered heavy losses due to this vyuh built on the orders of Pitamaha Bhishma.  In this vyuh, Pitamah Bhishma himself was at the forefront.
 Kripacharya, Dronacharya, Raja Vahlik, Ashwatthama and Duryodhana at the back with him.

Some more vyuh received from various sources

Shaktavyuh, Garbhavyuh, Suchivyuh, Ardchandravyuh, Sarvottabhadravyuh, Makravyuh, Sarpavyuh, Mandlavyuh, Sheyavanvyuh, Trishulvyuh, Satrachakrachakravyuh, Padmavyuh and Kashyapuvyuh .

1- Shaktvyuh-

  This vyuh is like a square box.  There are five stops in this.  First of all there is a contingent of 20000 foot soldiers.  After that a troop of 5000 chariots. In the midst of this vyuh, the king lived there with his chief minister,commander and chaturangani Sena (Chaturangani army is four types of army in which foot soldiers, horses , elephants and chariots). After this, a contingent of 1000 elephant and 2000 foot soldiers lived there.  At the last stop of this vyuh, there was a contingent of 2100 horses.
 A total of 30100 soldiers were required to build this vyuh. To break this vyuh, if it is attacked simultaneously, it can break the vyuh. This is the only way to break it.

2- Garbhavyuh-

This vyuh is round in shape like a pregnant woman's stomach.  In this vyuh, there would have been 6 rows, but those 6 rows were divided in 3 ways. The first line consisted of 6000 foot soldiers and 4000 horsemen.  There were 10,000 chariots in the second row.  There was Chaturangani army in the third line.  In the last part of the third line, the king and his trusted soldiers lived. In the fourth row, there were 10,000 elephant.  There were 5000 horsemen and 5000 elephant in the fifth row.  The last line consisted of 10,000 foot soldiers. To break this vyuh, a sucivyuh to be created.  If the third line of the garbhavyuh is hit with the help of a suchivyuh, it can be broken. 70000 soldiers were needed to build the garbha vyuh.

3- Suchivyuh-

This vyuh was like a long pointed spear and it had only one line which was made up of an entire Akshohini army. The king used to be right in front of this vyuh, but he was protected by the most feared fighters of the army.  You must be thinking that it would be easier to break this vyuh because the king lives in front of this vyuh. By killing him, the vyuh will be broken but it is not because the most powerful warriors of the army used to protect the chariot in which the king sat.  The only way to break it was that if the horsemen attacked simultaneously on its right and left side, this array would be broken.

4- Ardhachandravyuh -

 This vyuhis one of the most complex vyuhs.  To make this, 6 Akshauhini Army is required.  It consisted of three lines, which remained from the 1-1 Akshauhini Army.
The remaining 3 Akshohini Army used to stay behind it.  Just as an army or someone  headed towards this (half-moon) ardhachandravyuh then the army behind the ardhachandravyuh came in front and surrounded the vyuh or army that entered inside the ardhchandrvyuh. And Ardhchandravyuh became full moon(poornchandravyuh) and killed the army trapped inside.  There was only one way to break this vyuh and that it should be attacked directly from any other side without entering it.

5- Sarvottabhadravyuh -

This is also one of the most complex vyuh.  No one was able to build this vyuh till date because 27 Akshohini Army was required to build it. That means a total of 55 lakh 89 thousand soldiers were needed to make this vyuh.  Because this vyuh was never built, it could not be broken.
Sarvatobhadra means a very different way of looking at the constellations.  As we all know that there are 27 constellations.  This vyuh also had 27 parts that moved forward together, in a single line.
Because this vyuh is never used, there is no description of how to break it and how to trap the enemy inside it.

6- Mkravyuh- 

Mkra means spider.  You may be thinking that this will be a very weak vyuh, but it is not so.  It required 6 Akshauhini Army to build it and just like a spider web has seven rows, it also had seven rows. In the front row, 30000 thousand soldiers used to stand with spears and shields and some soldiers used to stand with ropes.  As soon as someone reached near the first line, the soldiers with the rope made a trap and threw it over them and pulled it inside the vyuh.  Spearmen used to kill them.  There were archers in the second line.
If a very large army attacked in one go, they used fire arrows and surrounded the army in a circle of fire and then killed them.  There was only one way to break this array and that was Kashyap vyuh.  It could only be broken by Kashyap vyuh.

7- Sarpvyuh- 

This vyuh was in the shape of a snake.  At least 1 Akshauhini Army was required to build it.  The specialty of this vyuh was that it used to run like a snake, so no one knew in which direction the vyuh was going. Whatever army came to the  in front of this vyuh, it used to swallow it, meaning that  would take it in like a snake and then kill it.  There was only one way of breaking this vyuh, if it is hit on the head same way, then this snake vyuh is broken.

8- Mandalvyuh - 

This vyuh was like the solar system.  Which had 9 houses.  Similarly, there were 9 rows standing in the shape of 9 planets.  9 Akshauhini Army was required to build it. Just as the sun in the solar system is in the middle and all the houses used to revolve around it, the king used to be in the middle of this vyuh and all the other lines used to revolve around it. Another special thing was that this vyuh was can not broken.

9 - Shyen vyuh -

 This vyuh was never used for attack, it was used only to break the snake vyuh.  Therefore, no more details are available about it.

10- Satrah Chakra Chakravyuh- 

This is one of the very complex vyuh and can also be made with less army.  It consists of 17 chakras.  The king is in the middle of the 17th chakras and the remaining 16 cycles surround him. By this, any large army can be divided into 17 parts and killed.  It cannot be broken by any other vyuh.  The only way to break it is that if the weakest chakra is broken, then this vyuh will be broken.

11- Trishulvyuh - 

This vyuh used to be in the shape of a trident. It required 4 Akshauhini Army to make it. Three Akshauhini army made the tip of this vyuh and the rest of the 1 Akshauhini army used to make handle of trident on which the arrow was pointed. The specialty of this vyuh was that it could attack in three directions at once, and even if one of its tip breaks, it could be attacked with the other two points.  If only one point was left in this vyuh, it could attack.The only way to break it was that if all three points were attacked simultaneously, this vyuh would be destroyed.

12- Padmavyuh (Chakravyuh) -

 Chakravyuh or Padmavyuh is one of the many vyuh (military-structure) mentioned in Hindu warfare / scriptures.
The Chakravyuh is a multi-level defensive military structure which, when viewed from the top, looks like a Chakra or Padma, a maharathi warrior stand every doorway for protect it. This vyuh was used in the Mahabharata to arrest Dharmaraja Yudhishthira by Dronacharya, the chief commander of Kauravas.
It is the most complex vyuh in all vyuhs. It consists of seven chakras which rotate continuously and move forward.  Just like a screw.  But its shape is round. If someone is trapped inside this Chakravyuh and he does not know to leave, then he will be killed because the more he enters inside the Chakravyuh, the more difficult it will become.  The only way to break it is to break the way to enter it.
Abhimanyu tried to do this, but as I have written above, the chakra rotates continuously in two ways.  So at the time when Abhimanyu entered the chakravyuh, his exit was ahead and entry gate was behind and he entered the evacuation route, he faced the strongest warriors before which he was killed.

13- Kashyapvyuh- 

This vyuh is in the shape of a tortoise.  This vyuh is closed with large slopes from all four sides, so it does not affect by  any outside attack. And it can hurt enemies a lot.  But this vyuh is open from the top, so if the arrow is fired from above it, then this vyuh can be broken.

After trying so much, I was not able to get the complete information and the article related pictures could not be found either.  Sorry for this  Thank you


Thursday, March 5, 2020

Description of warriors and soldiers of mythological period


Description of warriors and soldiers of mythological period

Army and War. In the imagination of the common man, these two words have been causing oddities since ancient times. Even today, so many battles are being fought in different parts of the world. But presently, humans and machines are working together in war, different story of diplomacy is being written. Today, war is being fought with automatic guns, nuclear bombs, ion dome (which traces the missile in the air) and also destructive weapons. In the coming time, there is talk of replacing the army with robots and if this happens, then run the horse of imagination and think how the army would have been in ancient times? What will people say? What would have been the language of war?
Sanskrit word Sena is the most popular and popular word in Hindi in this sense. The Sanskrit dhaatu se means to bind, fasten, catch , connect, organize, etc. The army is obviously meaningless without unity, affiliation or organization.
According to the famous culturalist Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane's history book of Indian theology, the word Senani has also been mentioned in the Rigveda. In Purana the words Bal and Vahini have also been used in this sense, which continues till today.

According to ancient texts, there are six types of armies - Maul (traditional dynasty), Bhritya(payroll), shreni (Vahini kept by merchants), Mitra (army of friends and feudatories), Amitra (the force which once was possessed in enemies side) and Aatvik (army of wild castes).

Today, there are three major types of any regular army. Water, land and sky. Up to four and eight types of it have been described in ancient times which have been called Chaturangini Sena and Ashtangik Sena respectively. Chaturangini consisted of hasti(elephant) , horse, chariots and padatik (infantry) . Apparently the Chaturangini sena was meant by the Army itself.

The Shantiparva of the Mahabharata mentions eight parts of the army, in which the soldiers in addition to the four parts of Chaturangini, who were not to take salary they used to get only food, were called Vishti. Apart from this, there were sailors, chara( One who keeps wandering) and dashik (Familiar with the location) .who played the role of a pioneer.

The mythological references often refer to the Akshohini sena. According to the Indian Culture Dictionary, there were 109350 infantry, 65610 horses, 21870 chariots, 21870 elephants in the Akshauhini sena which totaled 218700. In the Mahabharata, the Kauravas had eleven and the Pandavas had seven Akshauhini sena. Thus the Mahabharata was of eighteen Akshauhini armies. In the ancient texts and Puranas, a description of the legendary Chaturangini and Akshohini army is found somewhere.

 In the eighth chapter of the first skanda in the Shrimad Bhagwat-Mahapuran, the Akshauhini army is mentioned -

आह राजा धर्मसुतश्चिन्तयन् सुहृदां वधम् ।
प्राकृतेनात्मना विप्राः स्नेहमोहवंश गतः ।।
अहो मे पश्यताज्ञानं ह्नदि रूढ़ं दुरात्मनः ।
पारवयस्यैव देहस्य बहयों मेऽक्षैहिणीर्हताः ।।
श्रीमद्भागवतमहापुराण प्रथम स्कंन्ध अध्या.8-47-48
Sutji tells to the Shounak and others sages that the dharm guru King Yudhishthira, was very much worried about the slaughter of his relatives. He fell under the control of affection and fascination with the unreasonable mind and said - Well, look at this ignorance that has been ingrained in the heart of my evil soul, I have destroyed many Akshohini army for this devilish body for the diet of "jackals & dogs" . The army of the Pandavas was 7 Akshohini and the army of the Kauravas was 11 Akshauhini. Their sum is 18 and the war also lasted only for 18 days.

A similar description of the Akshauhini army is described in the fifty-five chapter of Srivamanapurana -

धूम्राक्ष गच्छ तां दुष्टां केशाकर्षणविहृवलाम्
सापराधां यथा दासीं कृत्वा शीध्रमिहानय।।
यश्चास्याः पक्षकृतः कश्चिद् भविष्यति महाबलः ।
स हन्तव्योऽ विचायैंव यादि हि स्यात् पितामहः।।
स एवमुक्तः शुम्भेन धूम्रोक्षोऽक्षौहिणीशतैः ।
वृतः षड्भिर्महातेजा विन्ध्यं गिरिमुपाद्रवत् ।।
श्रीवामनपुराण अध्याय 55-41-44
Shumbha said that Dhumraksha! You go bring the wicked like a criminal maid ruining draw her hairs and bring it here soon. If someone becomes his mighty and takes his side, then without thinking you kill him there - even if it is Brahma.
On this type order of Shumbha, that great stunning Dhumraksha took 6 hundred Akshohini army and climbed Vindhya mountain. But seeing those Durga there, he said to go to be dazzling eyes, oh fool come, come! Kaushiki! You start to wish to accept Shumbha as your husband, otherwise I will forcefully grab you hair and drag you from here to distraught.

The Chanturangini army consisted of elephant horses, chariots and foot soldiers, all of them combined to form Chaturangini army.

It was necessary to have at least two persons on the elephant. One lived the Mahavat or Peelwan and the other a warrior. Similarly, two people lived in a chariot. One charioteer was another warrior. Two or four horses were used in the chariot.

The special thing is that when the war of Mahabharata must have been fought,

 1. What were they called the army?
 2. How would the army of that era be?
 3. How the army must have been operating?
Shocked! it is a thriller?
 So, today we take you to a period which is actually older than history.
Army is ready in the field. Ranbheri has been played and there are two descendants of the same clan in front of the invincible throne, whose name is Hastinapur.

Elephants, horses, chariots and foot soldiers were the main parts of this army. The special thing is that the army which had all these four parts was called Chaturangini Army.

Between them all there was a measurement of the army which was called Akshauhini.

When Ugrashravaji was telling the Shaunak Rishis about the army of Kauravas and Pandavas, the Rishis asked the meaning of Akshohini army which Ugrashravaji explained in detail. It is described in the second chapter of the Upavaarva, the earlier collection of the Adivaparva of Mahabharata, in verses 21 to 41.
The sages asked — Sutanandan! In relation to the word Akshohini that you have just spoken, we want to hear all the things accurately. How many pedestrians, horses, chariots and elephants are in the Akshauhini army? Let us hear it accurately, because you know everything. Ugrasravaji said

There were four divisions of any Akshohini army:

 Elephant
 Chariot
 Horse
 Soldier

An Akshauhini army was divided into 9 parts:

 (01). Patti : 1 elephant + 1 chariot + 3 horses + 5 foot soldiers

02). Senamukh (3 x Patti): 3 elephant + 3 chariots + 9 horses + 15 foot soldiers

(03). Gulam (3 x Seenamukh): 9 elephant + 9 chariots + 27 horses + 45 foot soldiers

(04). Gana (3 x gulm): 27 elephant + 27chariots + 81 horses + 135 foot soldiers

(05). Vahini (3 x Gan): 81 elephant + 81 chariots + 243 horses + 405 foot soldiers

(06). Pritna (3 x vahini): 243 elephant + 243 chariots + 729 horses + 1215 foot soldiers

(07).  Chamu (3 x Pritna): 729 elephant + 729 chariots + 2187 horses + 3645 foot soldiers

(08). Anikini (3 x Chamu): 2187 elephant + 2187chariots + 6561 horses + 10935 foot soldiers

(09). Akshauhini (10 x Anekini): 21870 elephants + 21870 chariots + 65610 horses + 109350 foot soldiers
Thus in an Akshohini army, the army of elephants , chariots, horses and soldiers was as follows:
 Elephants : 21870
 Chariot: 21870
 Horseman: 65610
 Foot soldier: 109350
 In this, 218700 soldiers of all the four part were equally divided. Each unit had a head.
The protagonists of Patti, Senamukh, Gulam and Gana were generally an Ardharathi.
 The heroes of Vahini, Pritna and Chamu were usually a Rathi.
Anikini was generally operated by a atirathi .
 An Akshauhini army was usually commanded by a maharathi.
The hero of more than one Akshauhini army was a very outstanding warrior, who was a warrior above the Maharathi. Such as Bhishma, Arjuna and Karna.

Legendary Warriors Level

The level of the war skills of mythological history characters, who could fight with many warriors ?
  There have been many wars in Indian mythological history, whether Indra and Vratasur or Dewasur Sangram, Ram-Ravana war or the battle of Kaurava - Pandavas, all the warriors showed their eligibility . These warriors have also been given titles according to their skill, know which character was or how many people were skilled in fighting with warriors ?

This is probably my most ambitious article. We have read many times about the rank of warriors in Ramayana, Mahabharata and other mythological stories. The most common word that appears in these books is "maharathi" and this word has been made so common that for any warrior we use the word maharathi when it was a very big title and only a few selected warriors. Were able to reach the level of the maharathi. Do you know that some qualifications were also required to get these categories? If not, today we will know about the level of the warriors of the mythological period.

Here I would like to specially request that please do not compare the warriors of Ramayana and Mahabharata among themselves. Look at their strength in terms of their counterpart warriors in their era. Otherwise, even the ordinary warriors of the Ramayana period were more powerful than the Maharathi of the Mahabharata period. Similarly, do not compare any deity to an ordinary person. Their force is also in front of them in the context of gods or demons. Also keep in mind that any warrior was certified not only by his physical strength but also by the divine weapons he was received.

Ardharathi:

 Ardharathi was a trained warrior who could use more than one weapon and could face up to 2500 armed warriors simultaneously in battle. Talking about Ramayana and Mahabharata, innumerable Ardharthis took part in these wars. It is noteworthy that while describing the force of the warriors in the Mahabharata war, Pitamah Bhishma counted Karna as an ardharathi and due to this insult Karna vowed that as long as Bhishma Pitamah was alive he would not participate in the war of Mahabharata.

Rathi:

 A warrior who can face two Ardharthis or 5000 armed warriors simultaneously. In addition, he should have "eligibility and skill"use at least two weapons. In the Mahabharata period, except for Duryodhana and Dushasana, all the Kauravas were Rathi . Apart from this, the five sons of Draupadi (Pratibindya, Sutasom, Shrutakarma, Shatanik and Shrutsen), Jayadratha, Shakuni and his sons Uluka, Yuyutsu, Sudakshin, Virat's son Prince Uttara, Shankh, Shatanik and Shwetha. Iravan son of Arjuna, leave Vrissen all the sons of Karna, all the sons of Duryodhana and Dushashan, Susarma, Uttamauja, Yudhamanyu, Jarasandha son Sahadeva, Bahlik son Somdutt, Kansa etc. was counting in Rathi . Numerous rathis took part in the Ramayana, whose detailed narratives are not available. Among the demons were the rathi like Khar and Dushan, Vatapi etc. Among the apes, Gandhamadan, Mend and Dwivind, Hanuman's sons Makardhwaj, Sharabh and Sushen were considered rathi .

Aarthiathi:

 A warrior who specializes in many weapons and can face 12 rathi or 60000 armed warriors simultaneously in battle. In the Mahabharata period, Yudhishthira, Nakula, Sahadeva, Ghatotkacha, Dushashan, Virat, Drupada, Dhritashdhumna, Shikhandi, Karna's son Vrishsen, Madraraj Shalya, Kritavarma, Bhurishrava, Kripacharya, Shishupala and his son Dhritcheketu, Rukmi, Shikhandi, Satishika, also Bhima's uncle Bahlik, Narakasura, Rakshasa Alambush, Pradyumna, Keechak and Alayudh etc. were atirathi. During the Ramayana period Angad, Nal, Neel, Prahst, Akampan, Shatrughna, Bharata son Pushkal, Vibhishana, Hanuman's father Kesari, Tadka and her son Marich etc. were counted in Atirathi.

Maharathi:

 It was probably the most famous title and the warriors who received this title were respected and famous all over the world. The maharathi was a warrior who was adept at operating all known weaponry and in addition to that he had knowledge of some of the divyastra above normal weapons. In battle, the maharathi could face 12 atirathis or 72000 armed warriors. Apart from this, any warrior who had the knowledge of Brahmastra (who was few) was directly in the category of maharathi. Generally, most of the big warriors are called maharathis, but in reality there were few warriors who counted the title of maharathis. In Mahabharata, Duryodhana, Ashwatthama, Bhagadatta, Jarasandha, Abhimanyu, Barbarik etc. are placed in the category of Maharathi. Bhima is considered to be equal to the 18 athirathis, Balarama, Guru Drona, Arjuna and Karna as two maharathis and Pitamah Bhishma is considered equivalent to three maharathis. In the Ramayana period Bharata, Jamwant, Sugriva, Luv, Kush, Atikayya etc. fall under the category of Maharathi. Kumbhakarna is considered as three, Ravana four and Bali and Kartavirya Arjuna are considered as six maharathis. Among the other warriors, there is a slight difference of opinion regarding Lakshmana, Hanuman and Parashurama. In most places, they have got the category of atimaharathi , then in some places they are considered equal to 9 maharathis.

Atihamarathi: 

Warriors of this category were rare. He was called the Atihamarathi who can face 12 Maharathi category warriors, ie, 8640000 armed warriors alone, as well as having knowledge of all kinds of divine powers. In the Mahabharata, there is no authentic reference to the atimaharathi warriors, but in some texts it is argued that Bhishma (owing to the knowledge of Prasavapastra and defeating Parashurama) and Arjuna (due to the knowledge of Pashupatastra) are placed in the category of atimaharathi warriors. There is also no accurate information about Karna (many curses on knowledge of Bhargavastra in addition to Brahmastra), Drona and Balarama. Only in the Ramayana period, Meghnad is undeniably counted in the Atimaharthi as there was all Divyastra that he had  knowledge of, especially that he was the master of the three Mahastras - Brahmastra, Narainastra and Pashupatastra. Except only Pashupatastra, Lakshmana also had knowledge of all the Divyastra and hence he is also placed in this category. Apart from this, the incarnations of Lord Vishnu, especially Varah, Narsingh, Rama, Krishna and sometimes Parashurama are also placed in the category of Atimaharathi. Among the deities, Kartikeya, Ganesha and Indra, Surya, Yama, Agni and Varuna in the Vedic age are also considered to be atimaharathi . The ten mahaavidyas of Adishakti and Rudravatar especially Veerabhadra and Hanuman are also called Atimaharathi.

Mahamaharathi: 

It is considered to be the highest level of any type of warrior. He is called a mahamaharathi who can withstand 24 atimaharathi ie 207360000 armed warriors.
 Along with this, all types of divine and superpowers should be under him. Till date, no warrior or avatar has been of this level on earth.
 One of the reasons for this is that till now, in the 24 atimaharathi , at the same time, there have not been even one in the entire kalpa. Only the trinity (Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra) and Adishakti are considered so powerful.

Detective department

Military intelligence was an important part of the security system in ancient India. In the Mahabharata period, communications were considered a part of the astangik sena of the army. According to the epic, with the help of detectives, the king can destroy the powerful and well-organized army by staying in the fort. They roamed every part of the enemy's country and got knowledge of its status.

Specifically, the military system of the enemy used to locate suitable places for battle, camp land for the army and those unsafe places where a strong and successful attack could be carried out. For this it was also necessary that full knowledge of the morale and loyalty of own army should be kept.


In ancient times, when the internal peace system was often disturbed due to external invasions, the army played an important role. In emergency situations, the king was completely dependent on the army and in a way his self-centered existence depended on the loyal army. Any king
 In the absence of the help of detectives, the enemy cannot be conquered.
Proper and reliable knowledge of the enemy's military bases, military strength, the morale of the subjects, his love and loyalty to the king and preparations for war was necessary. Mahabharata has recommended the use of detectives more and more at many places.
 Along with receiving information, detectives also played a special role in the war period. They were also used to kill unsuspecting enemies who took refuge in a safe place, situated in the fort, by weapons, fire or poison.
its utility, Kautilya wrote that the task which was sometimes impossible for a large army
 That is, a skilled detective can execute spontaneously by resorting to arsenal and poison.
Kautilya, with special emphasis on military intelligence, has considered this process as the only means to destroy the enemy's security formation. Knowing the position of the enemy army through intelligence, its preparedness, the morale of the soldiers, the internal revolution in the enemy country and creating a sense of conflict in the enemy side, the proper and safe places for the own country, army's war work for the protection of  used to be searched.
Keeping every aspect of the power of his enemies in mind, they should use his self-power properly. By finding out all the weaknesses of the enemy, they need to be destroyed.
 While adopting the policy, destroy it with the help of detectives. Detectives used to travel from place to place to get proper information about the enemies.


Thursday, February 13, 2020

Mysterious persons of Hinduism scriptures


Mysterious persons of Hinduism scriptures

According to Hindu history and mythology, there are seven persons who are Chiranjeevi. All this is bound by some word, rule or curse and it is endowed with all divine powers. All the powers of Ashta Siddhi which have been said in yoga are present in them.It is like parapsychology, only those who know the science of modern science today, such as parapsychology and telepathy, can believe it. Let's know which are the seven living great human beings according to Hinduism.

अश्वत्थामा बलिव्र्यासो हनूमांश्च विभीषण:।
कृप: परशुरामश्च सप्तएतै चिरजीविन:॥
सप्तैतान् संस्मरेन्नित्यं मार्कण्डेयमथाष्टमम्।
जीवेद्वर्षशतं सोपि सर्वव्याधिविवर्जित।।
Ashwatthama Balivryaso Hanumanshach Vibhishanah
 Kripah Parashuramashcha Saptaetai Chirjeevinh॥
 Saptaitaan Sasmarennityam Markandeyamathasthamam
 Jeevadvarshatam sopi sarvavyadhivivarjit

That is, by remembering these eight people (Ashwathama, Daityaraja Bali, Veda Vyasa, Hanuman, Vibhishana, Kripacharya, Parashurama and Markandeya Rishi) in the morning, all diseases end and man attains the age of 100 years.

 On the basis of ancient beliefs, if a person takes the names of these eight immortal people (Ashta Chiranjeevi) every day, then his get life is long.

1. Hanuman -

 In Kali Yuga, Hanumanji is considered to be the earliest happy deity and Hanumanji is also one of these Ashta Chiranjeevias. Sita blessed Hanuman after hearing Rama's message in Ashoka Vatika in Lanka that he would remain ajar-immortal. Azar-Amar means that one who will never die and never old age. For this reason, Lord Hanuman has always been considered a source of power because he is an under-age.

2. Kripacharya -

 According to the Mahabharata, Kripacharya was the kulguru of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. Kripacharya is the son of Gautam Rishi and his sister's name is Kripi. Kripi was married to Dronacharya. Kripacharya is the maternal uncle of Ashwathama. In the Mahabharata war, Kripacharya also sided with the Kauravas against the Pandavas.

3. Ashwatthama- 

The description of many incarnations of Lord Shankar is also found in the texts. One of them is an avatar who is still wandering on earth for his salvation.
When there was war between Kauravas and Pandavas in Dwaparyuga, Ashwatthama sided with the Kauravas. According to the Mahabharata, Ashwatthama was a composite part of Kaal, Krodha, Yama and Lord Shankar. Ashwatthama was a very brave, fierce warrior. According to religious texts, it was Lord Krishna who cursed Ashwatthama to wander on earth forever.
The prevailing belief in relation to Ashwathama ... There is a fort 20 km from the city of Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh. It is called the fort of Asirgarh. This fort has an ancient temple of Lord Shiva. Local residents here say that Ashwatthama comes to this temple daily to worship Lord Shiva.

4. Rishi Markandeya - 

The supreme devotee of Lord Shiva is Rishi Markandeya. He pleased Shiva and meditated and became Chiranjeevi due to Mahamrityunjaya mantra Siddhi.

5. Vibhishan - 

Vibhishan is the younger brother of the demon king Ravana. Vibhishan is an exclusive devotee of Shri Ram. When Ravana had killed Mother Sita, Vibhishan had explained to Ravana not to enmity with Rama. On this matter Ravana expelled Vibhishana from Lanka. Vibhishan went to the service of Shri Ram and supported religion in eradicating Ravana's iniquity.

6. Raja Bali -

 According to the scriptures, King Bali is a descendant of the devotee Prahlada. Bali sacrificed everything to the Vamana avatar of Lord Vishnu. For this reason, he is known as Mahadani. Srihari was very happy with King Bali. For this reason, Shri Vishnu also became the gatekeeper of King Bali.

7. Rishi Vyasa - 

Rishi is also Ashta Chiranjeevi and he edited the four Vedas (Rigveda, Atharvaveda, Samaveda and Yajurveda). Also, he also composed all 18 Puranas. The Mahabharata and the Srimad Bhagavat Gita have also been composed by Veda Vyasa. They are also known as Ved Vyas. Ved Vyas was the son of sages Parashar and Satyavati. He was born on an island in the river Yamuna and had a dark complexion. For this reason, they are called Krishna Dvaipayana.

8. Parashurama - 

Parashurama is the sixth incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Parashurama's father was Rishi Jamadagni and mother Renuka. He was born on Tritiya of Shukla Paksha of Vaishakh month according to Hindi calendar. Therefore, Tritiya which falls on the Shukla Paksha of Vaishakh month is called Akshaya Tritiya. Parshuram's birth time is considered to be in the combined era of Satyuga and Treta.


God, avatar and divine stories -2

God, avatar and divine stories -2 In the previous post of the blog, all of you learned about the Avatar and read some type of the avata...