Showing posts with label Important information. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Important information. Show all posts

Sunday, August 2, 2020

Mother Gandhari - a strong and constrained woman



Mother Gandhari - a strong and constrained woman

Who was Gandhari who wanted to make Duryodhana as Vajra body

Gandhari is one of the influential female characters of Mahabharata.  Gandhari was Dhritarashtra's wife and Duryodhana's mother.  Shakuni was her brother.  Let us know who Gandhari was and what power she had.

Gandhari's character is at the forefront of India's glorious women who had learned to live by ideals as well as her principle of husband's devout.  She had prevented the husband and her sons from going on unrighteousness and wrong path.  Her life is the story of a woman forced into the love of husband and son.
 One of the women mentioned in the Mahabharata story is Gandhari.  Gandhari is considered a virtuous woman and an ideal woman.  Gandhari  was the daughter of a king named Subal of the Gandhar country.  Being Gandhar country, she got his name Gandhari.  Gandhari was an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva.  After the war of Mahabharata ended, Gandhari went into the forest with her husband, Kunti and Vidur.

Was blindfolded only after getting married to Dhritarashtra

 When Gandhari was married to the blind Dhritarashtra, Gandhari also blindfolded.  Gandhari said that when my husband is blind, she has no right to see the world.  Gandhari's brother Shakuni was not happy with this marriage.  Being a devotee of Shiva, Gandhari was given the boon by Lord Shiva to become the mother of hundred sons. When Gandhari was married to blind Dhritarashtra, she too had her blindfolded.  As long as she lived, she did not remove her blindfold.  He had not even seen the face of his 100 sons.

Many ominous incident occurred on Duryodhana's birth

Gandhari named his first son Duryodhana.  It is said that when Duryodhana was born, at that time there were many ominous things.  Duryodhana started speaking as soon as he was born.  Then Vidur and the scholars asked Dhritarashtra to abandon this child.  Scholars and astrologers said that if you want to protect the Kaurava dynasty, then abandon Duryodhana, otherwise no one will be able to stop being evil.  But Duryodhana could not be abandoned in Putramoh(Affection of son's love).

Gandhari did not want the Mahabharata war

When her husband Raja Dhritarashtra agreed to Duryodhana and gave his consent to play the game of gambling, Gandhari warned Dhritarashtra that " should never take such an incurious decision by complying in the words of the moron children, the old and the wicked intellectuals."  You should not get your entire family destroyed by complying into the words of the son with affection. 
After recognizing the character of Duryodhana, she always asked Dhritarashtra to bring him on the path of dharma, calling him arrogant, sin-wise, greedy, bad companion , inconsiderate.  Even the Dushasanas were prevented from making mistakes, considering Krishna and Arjuna invincible and suggested way to compromise them.

Gandhari termed the 13-year exile given to the Pandavas as an unfair, unjust decision .  The obstinate Duryodhana never obeyed his mother Gandhari.  While going to war, she told Duryodhana how she can bless him, while the innocent Pandavas are the victims of his injustice.

Gandhari did not want the war of Mahabharata.  Before the war of Mahabharata started, when Lord Krishna went to Hastinapur as a peacekeeper for the treat0y, he proposed to give five villages to the Pandavas in front of Duryodhana, but Duryodhana rejected this proposal.  When Gandhari came to know about this, she asked Duryodhana to accept Sri Krishna's proposal.  Gandhari also told Duryodhana that it is in your welfare  to accept the things that Lord Krishna, Bhishma, Dronacharya and Vidur have told you.  But Duryodhana did not listen to the advice of Mata Gandhari and the result came in the form of war of Mahabharata.

Gandhari wanted to make Duryodhana's body like as a vajra 

It is said that in order to provide like iron-strength to his son Duryodhana, she told him to stand before her with an open body, then the light of her eyes would make his body become iron-like.  Duryodhana was in semi naked , so his half body only got iron power.
When all the Kauravas died in the war of Mahabharata, Gandhari decided to make Duryodhana as a vajra.  Gandhari had received this boon from Lord Shiva that whomever she would open her eyes and see anyone in nagnavastha(naked), thereof whole body would become of vajra.

Gandhari told Duryodhana that after bathing in the Ganges, he should appear in naked  in front of her .  But Lord Krishna knew this and on the way, Shri Krishna stopped Duryodhana and said that even after being so young, you would go in naked form to the mother.

Duryodhana got into the words of Shri Krishna and wrapped the leaves on the thigh and appeared before Gandhari.  When Gandhari opened the bandage with his eyes and saw him, her divine vision could not fall on the thigh, due to which the thighs of Duryodhana could not be of the vajra and in the end this led to the death of Duryodhana.

When Gandhari's hundred sons were killed in the fierce struggle of Mahabharata, she cried up in a sad mood that despite being the mother of hundred sons, she became sonless.  All her daughters-in-law are mourning as widows.  In the pile of dead bodies, looking at her dead sons, she looked very helpless, screaming with compassion. When Bheem, Yudhishthira, Nakula, etc. went to console Gandhari and apologize for the crime of her daughter-in-law, when forgiving, as soon as Gandhari's eyes fell on Yudhishthira's fingernails from the lower part of her eyes, his nails became black. Bhima and his brother hid in fear behind Yudhishthira. She considered as main factor the death of all her sons to Sri Krishna.  Gandhari, distraught at the sons's death, cursed Sri Krishna by saying: "If my dynasty is destroyed, then your dynasty will be destroyed and you too will be killed like an orphan."

Later Gandhari apologized to Krishna for these misdeeds.  Krishna smilingly said this: “Mother Gandhari!  This curse of yours is the law of God.  Your words will be true literally.  Please accept my greetings. "

Yudhishthira and all his brothers left no stone unturned in the service of their uncle and aunt Gandhari, but they also had to listen to the satire of being killer of sons from time to time.  For 15 years they lived in the palace with Yudhishthira.

From Yudhishthira, they asked for the permission to going to forest , which was rejected by Yudhishthira, but at the behest of Maharishi Vyasa, he ordered the exile along with Gandhari, Kunti, Vidur and Sanjay.  Going to the ashram of Maharishi Ved Vyasa in the forest, Gandhari expressed her desire to see the 100 dead sons again for the peace of mind of her husband Dhritarashtra and widow daughter-in-law. At the same time, Abhimanyu for Subhadra, and the five sons of Draupadi again show glimpse, they prayed to reduce their attachment and grief, which was completed by Ved Vyas.  In the last moments of life, Gandhari, Kunti and Dhritarashtra self sacrifice their lives.

In the history of Mahabharata, the character of Gandhari emerges not only because of her superiority in female characters, but also presents a psychological form of both good and bad feelings of the heart.  Her life is a great character saga of a forced woman trapped in the dilemma of wife and affection of sons.


Wednesday, July 22, 2020

Hinduism and the story of coconut's birth


Hinduism and the story of coconut's birth

  How was coconut born   

Have you ever thought or tried to know how the coconut was born, because in our religious rituals, coconut has been described as an important fruit, which we also call Shreephal .

In India, all kinds of religious activities, including worship, rituals, yajna, havan, have been a symbol of people's faith and belief in God since time immemorial, and the use of coconut mainly as a Shreephal in all religious activities has been happening. Let us know how the coconut was born. 
According to religious beliefs and folktales, the coconut was originated by Brahmarshi Vishwamitra, whose story is also related to King Satyavrata, King Satyavrata who was a great and religious king .King Satyavrat performed all the yajna-havan and charity, even after being blessed he wished that he could go to heaven from the earth, but he did not know how to reach heaven . During the reign of King Satyavrata, Brahmarshi Vishwamitra also exist, who left his home & family for the purpose of doing penance and went to the Himalayan peaks . Even after a long time, he did not come back, when Vishwamitra's absence caused a severe drought in his area, and the family of Brahmarshi Vishwamitra started to wander hungry and thirsty here and there . Then King Satyavrat took care of his family, and took care of the responsibility, and after a long interval when Brahmarshi came back, his family told about the benevolence of King Satyavrat, so that the happy Muni reached the palace to meet the king. 

Even after a long time, he did not come back, when Vishwamitra's absence caused a severe drought in his area, and the family of Brahmarshi Vishwamitra started to wander  hungry and thirsty here and there .तब राजा सत्यव्रत ने उनके परिवार का भरण पोषण किया, और देख रेख कि जिम्मेदारी ली, और लम्बे अंतराल के बाद ज़ब ब्रम्हर्षि वापस आये तब उनके परिवार ने राजा सत्यव्रत के उपकार के बारे में बताया, जिससे प्रसन्न मुनि राजा से मिलने उनके महल जा पहुंचे,And thanking King Satyavrat and asked him to ask for a boon, on hearing this, King Satyavrat immediately conveyed his desire to go to heaven to Vishwamitra . Because King Satyavrat knew that if Muni Vishwamitra wanted, he could send him to Swargalok with his power, and that is how Brahmarshi Vishwamitra immediately made the path of heaven for the king with the power of his penace power .  And blessing and asked to depart, now King Satyavrat was not only happy and went out towards the heavens smiling dimly, but as soon as Satyavrat reached the gate of heaven, Devraj Indra pushed him down,And thanking King Satyavrat and asked him to ask for a boon, on hearing this, King Satyavrat immediately conveyed his desire to go to heaven to Vishwamitra. Because King Satyavrat knew that if Muni Vishwamitra wanted, he could send him to Swargalok with his power, and that is how Brahmarshi Vishwamitra immediately made the path of heaven for the king with the power of his penace power. And blessing and asked to depart, now King Satyavrat was not only happy and went out towards the heavens smiling dimly, but as soon as Satyavrat reached the gate of heaven, Devraj Indra pushed him down.

Due to which King Satyavrat fell on the earth, now the disheartened Satyavrat again came to Brahmarshi Vishwamitra and narrated the whole story, which the enraged Vishwamitra reached heaven . Then Guru Vrihaspati intervened and suggested that lets create a separate heaven for Satyavrat, because no human with body can come from heaven on earth, so it will not break the dignity of heaven and Muni Vishwamitra promise will not be false.Due to which King Satyavrat fell on the earth, now the disheartened Satyavrat again came to Brahmarshi Vishwamitra and narrated the whole story, which the enraged Vishwamitra reached heaven. Then Guru Vrihaspati intervened and suggested that lets create a separate heaven for Satyavrat, because no human with body can come from heaven on earth, so it will not break the dignity of heaven and Muni Vishwamitra promise will not be false. 
Then, as ordered by Devaraja Indra, Guru Vrihaspati and Muni Vishwamitra, a second heaven was constructed between the heavens and the earth, a pillar was built to keep it stable, the pillar turned into a tree in time, and after the death of King Satyavrata, his head became a fruit which we call shriphal or coconut .

Then, as ordered by Devaraja Indra, Guru Vrihaspati and Muni Vishwamitra, a second heaven was constructed between the heavens and the earth, a pillar was built to keep it stable, the pillar turned into a tree in time, and after the death of King Satyavrata, his head became a fruit which we call shriphal or coconut,हिन्दू धर्म में भगवान की पूजा के लिए मनुष्य की बलि दी जाती थी, इस प्रथा को रोकने के लिए नारियल चढ़ाने की प्रथा शुरू की गई।
Coconut is considered auspicious in Hinduism.  It is also known as Shriphal.  In which Sri means Lakshmi.  Coconut is considered to be the fruit of Goddess Lakshmi and Lord Vishnu.  That is why coconut is break before doing any auspicious work. According to mythological beliefs, when Lord Vishnu incarnated on earth, then he brought Lakshmi, Kamadhenu and coconut tree with him.  Coconut is believed to be the abode of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh.  Therefore, he has great importance.  Shriphal is considered to be the beloved fruit of Lord Shiva. It is believed that by offering coconut to your revered god, all your money problems are destroyed.  It is believed that consuming coconut eliminates the weaknesses of the body and makes the body strong.
There is a legend behind the breaking of coconuts before starting auspicious work.  At one time, sacrificing humans and animals was very common in Hinduism.  Then an Acharya started offering coconut in place of human sacrifice to stop this tradition. Coconut has often been considered as the head of humans.  Coconut jatas can be compared to human hair, its outer part which is hardened compared human skull and coconut water can be compared with human blood. Often people lay the foundation of work, then first of all, they start by breaking the coconut.
No worship is complete without coconut, but have you ever wondered why men always break coconut?  Why elders or pundits of the house refuse women to break coconut.  Let's know the story behind this.
There is also a story behind it in the scriptures.  Actually it is believed that coconut is not a fruit but a seed.  Women give birth to babies, so how can they harm the seeds, so they are prevented from breaking the coconut.
It is also believed that coconut is the first fruit on earth sent by Lord Vishnu and no one has the right over  break this fruit except Lakshmi ji, so no other woman can break it.
Sanatana dharma has shown unity with the nature of religion.  Here, the five elements of nature are categorized into water, land, fire, air and sky, the primacy of one God among all the things in the universe.  In this sequence, their importance has been established by giving special place to animals, trees, plants, fruits, flowers. Some beliefs of Hinduism are surprising, such that women cannot break coconuts considered to be very holy.  Coconut is used during worship or at the beginning of any auspicious task.  Home entry or any new work is also started by breaking coconut, but women are not allowed for this.
In this case, astrologers are of the opinion that in Hinduism, women are considered as the image of just like Lakshmi and their superiority has been talked about, yet traditionally women were not given the right to break coconut during worship or in any other form. This privilege is confined exclusively to men.  Have you ever wondered why this happens?
According to astrologers, coconut has traditionally been considered as the seed of new creation.  Its story is related to the creation of new creation by Brahmrishi Vishwamitra, then he first created coconut as the first creation, it was considered to be a replica of human being. It is worth mentioning that according to astrologers, coconut is considered as a form of seed and it has been seen to be associated with breeding.  Women are the factors of childbirth, that is why it was prohibited for them to break the coconut as a forbidden act.

According to their opinion, women give birth to a baby from seed and hence it is considered inauspicious for women to break coconuts like seeds.  After offering the Shriphal to the Gods and Goddesses, only men break it. Although it is not authentically written in any religious text, nor has it been instructed by any deity.  Due to social beliefs and believes, at present Hindu women do not break coconut.  All this has remained a part of our customs over the years due to social beliefs and traditions .

Friday, July 10, 2020

Why do crows have a black color .




Why do crows have a black color .

Hello friends


                    Have you ever wondered why crows are black in color?  According to religious beliefs and legends, the color of the crow was white at first but due to the curse, it became black.  Because according to Hinduism black color is considered inauspicious. 

Therefore, the crow is also considered a symbol of inauspicious, according to popular folk tales: - In ancient times there was a great sage.  Who once sent a crow to search for the nectar and also warned that he would only find it and not to drink.  Then the color of crows was white.
That crow started wandering in the forest mountain, river, drain in search of nectar everywhere, from this end of the earth to that end, after a long gap he finally found the nectar but when the crow reached near the nectar and saw the nectar, his intelligence was corrupted .  He got a thought in his mind that if I should ownself drink nectar and will become immortal, so he drank the nectar, but when the sage thought about it and remembered his words, he was very sorry.  But now he had drunk nectar .    So the repenting crow returned to Maharishi.  When the crow reached the sage.  So Maharishi asked the what crow brother got amrit or came back in the same way.  Ashamed crow said that O Munivar Amrit had got it, but seeing it, my intellect got corrupted.  And I drank it myself, listening to it, the sage was filled with anger and said that even after stopping me, you drank the nectar. You have disobeyed me.  Has violated my command.  You will surely get its punishment.
I curse you that your color will turn black.  Although you have drunk the nectar.  Therefore you will not have any disease nor will you get old, so you will always receive premature death and the whole world will condemn you, only for 14 days of Shraddha, you will be respected and for the rest of the days you will only get reproach.  Therefore, for 14 days of Shraddha, crows are treated as Pitra form(ancestral) and are fed .

Although I do not think that there is any truth in this story, but it is prevalent in public stories, people believe, so I have written it, what do you think, please tell me in the comments, thank you .


Image source by www.pinterest.com and www.google.com

Saturday, July 4, 2020

Importance of Guru Purnima




Importance of Guru Purnima

The festival of Guru Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day in the month of Ashadh.  This festival is one of the most auspicious Hindu festivals.  On this day, the disciples express their gratitude to their Guru.  Many beliefs associated with this festival make it special. It is believed that for the first time on this day, Adiyogi Lord Shiva established himself as Adi Guru by giving knowledge of yoga to the Saptarishis.  It is also believed that Maharishi Ved Vyas was also born on this day.  Maharishi Vyasa composed the four Vedas and the Mahabharata.  For this reason his name is also Veda Vyas.  He is called Adiguru and Guru Purnima is known as Vyasa Purnima in his honor. 





It is believed that on this day, Maharishi Ved Vyas first gave the knowledge of Sri Bhagavata Purana to the disciples and sages.  On the full moon of Ashadh month, the disciples of Maharishi Ved Vyas started the tradition of Guru Puja.
It is also believed that Lord Buddha gave his first sermon on this auspicious day.  Hence this date is also known as Buddha Purnima.  On this day, there is a law of Guru Puja . The rainy season starts from Guru Purnima.  For four months from this day, saints and saints stay in one place and shed the Ganges of knowledge.  In Hinduism, the Guru is ranked higher than God.  This day is considered to be welfare for students.

In the Sanatan tradition, the Guru's name comes before God because it is the Guru who gives you the chance to meet with Govind, which explains his meaning.  Just like in life one has to trust the sailor to cross the river, the driver while traveling in the car, the doctor while undergoing treatment, in the same way a Sadhguru is needed to cross the life and when he meet  . we have to believe in life.  This is because even the fire of the Guru does not burn the disciple but serves to show him the right path. If you are thinking of making someone your guru on this Guru Purnima, then think a lot before that because a Guru is created only once in life.  It is not changed frequently.  One should remember this line of Kabir Das ji's couplet before making anyone a guru in the running life.

गुरु कीजिए जानि के, पानी पीजै छानि । बिना विचारे गुरु करे, परे चौरासी खानि॥

That is, the way water should be filtered and drunk, in the same way, after knowing the words and actions of any person, he should become his Guru.  Otherwise he does not get salvation and his movement on this earth remains.  Overall, the Sadhguru should be such that there is no greed in any way and it is free from fascination, confusion and doubt.  Even while living in this world, he should be free from all desires, mischief and ambition.

In Hinduism, both Guru and God have been considered equal.  Guru is like God and God is Guru.  It is the Guru who shows the way to attain God and get out of this world-like ocean.  By following the Guru's path, one attains peace, bliss and salvation.  It is said in the scriptures and the Puranas that if the Lord gets angry with the devotee, then only the Guru tells your protection and remedy.  According to religious belief, the Guru is worshiped on Guru Purnima.  Guru Poornima is very important in the country.  People celebrate Guru Purnima with great enthusiasm and happiness .  India is a country of sages and saints where they are worshiped as much as God.  Maharishi Veda Vyasa was the first scholar to explain the four Vedas of Sanatana Dharma.  And also, Sikhism has been considering only one God and the voice of its ten gurus as the real truth of life. 

Guru Purnima is celebrated as the birth day of Krishna Dwapayana Vyasa, the author of the epic Mahabharata.  Ved Vyas was a great Sanskrit writer.  The author of all 18 Puranas is also considered to be Maharishi Ved Vyasa.  The Vedas are also credited with dividing the Vedas.  For this reason, he was named Ved Vyas.  Therefore Guru Purnima is also known as Vyas Purnima.

Guru Purnima is the day when the first Guru was born.  In Yogic culture, Shiva is not considered a god, he is seen as an Adi Yogi, ie the first Yogi.  Guru Purnima is the full moon day, the day on which the yogi first transformed himself into Adi Guru, that is, the first Guru.

once upon a time.  A thief came to a saint.  He wanted him to be refugees, but did not want to give up their theft.  So, the saint allowed him and said, 'You can steal, but next time you steal, steal with full awareness.'  So, that thief thought that this is very easy, because stealing is my habit, stealing with caution is a big deal.  But it happened that the next time he was ready for the theft, he remembered the saint's point and became aware of his act.  The result was that he could not steal.


The thief thought that the saint's blessings would decrease over time.  But even after the passage of time, when he thought of theft or entered a house for theft, he remembered the voice of the saint and could not steal again.  There is great power in awareness.  It can bring a big change in you.  All mistakes happen in disregard, but in reflexes, no one can be angry, nor can there be any mistake, nor any complaint.  This happens only when your mind has become attached to its conscience, moving away from worldly things and complications.  When we have knowledge of something, then it becomes easy to handle things.  When we understand or know a little about life, it becomes easy to handle things.

When the guru comes into the life of a disciple, then awareness about his supreme reality also increases.  The Guru churns you well, so that you can have all-round development and you can be united with divinity.  The Guru is like a hut when you are surrounded in hot sun or in a severe storm, within which you get relaxed.

The Guru himself is like a light carrying a treasure of knowledge.  For a seeker, Guru is like life force.  Just as a seed first becomes a bud and then a flower, in the same way the Guru also gracefully leads us from ignorance to knowledge.  Being a Guru in life creates a sense of security in us.  Guru is an element, we should not feel Guru on a physical level.
There is a very beautiful story about Saint Kanakadasa, which makes it clear how the Guru's presence in his life should be felt.  Once the guru of Kanakadas gave him and other devotees a banana to break the fast of Ekadashi, on the condition that it be eaten only when no one was watching.  The next day the disciples described ways of eating their bananas.  But Kanakadas returned to the Guru with a banana.  When asked, Kanakdas said that whenever he tried to eat bananas, all the time, every moments and everywhere he felt the presence of his guru and he could not eat bananas. We call this experience a contiguity.  In this state all the sorrows, all the complaints go away and we start our work with full awareness.  With the belief that there is some power, which is taking care of us every time, every moment.  Then the question arises that how do we feel connected with that supreme power?  How can we find those gurus who can make us feel that light?  This question is very difficult to answer.  You have to experience it only through your inner intelligence.
Once, a very knowledgeable and respected teacher came to the Raj Bhavan.  He was also a great speaker.  He was respected by everyone, including the king, but he felt some emptiness and was in search of the Guru.  He was eager to surrender to a guru.  When he was leaving to find his Guru, the king presented him his palanquin.  When he reached his destination, it was revealed that one of the men who carried the sedan was his Guru, whom he was looking for.  His yearning to get the Guru was so much that he himself pulled the Guru to him.


If the yearning to get a Guru has arisen in your mind, then the Guru will come into your life.  If you take one step towards the Guru then the Guru takes a hundred steps towards you.  But the first step has to be taken by the disciple.  The closer you come to your guru, the more you will blossom.  Knowledge, love and newness will continue to grow in you.  There is no floor to this depth.  This is the importance of Guru Purnima, to have a never ending and unconditional relationship with your Guru.
The day of Guru Purnima is known as the biggest event in the spiritual world.  On this day, the two souls of Guru and disciple meet, surrender and immersion.  On this day, the master's aspiration dissolves in the soul of the disciple and the disciple merges in his master's aspiration.  This Mahaparva is less of knowing and understanding, more of being drowned in the ocean of feeling.  This festival is a legend, because the Guru lives in the soul of the disciple.  It is always in the disciple and the disciple has nothing of his own.  He has his own costume, inside, only the Mahachetna of the Guru keeps waving. Sadhguru is not ordinary, he is the power's source of Mahachetna, the fiercest representative of God.  God Himself appoints them and makes their future action plan.  Sadhguru incarnates on earth with the Bhagwat plan and returns to Bhagavat Dham again after completing the work.  Their action plan consists of finding their pupil, building it and then casting it.  They have to do everything according to plan.  They only know what they do and what to do.  His works are very strange - unique and special .  In the normal way, neither can it be understood nor can it be guessed.  Every work of a Guru is unique and wonderful.  His love and bless are extraordinary.  His love makes the disciple sophisticated and makes him worthy of love.  The disciple's veins flow with love.  This is what the Guru wants.  A dedicated disciple has to muster the courage to fulfill the desire of a competent Guru.  He has to go to the Guru's shelter with all his existence in this work.  In every situation, he has to be willing and ready to awareness to face suffering like humiliation, blasphemy, disdain, even death.  If he signs with his life in his death certificate, then only he fulfills the first condition to be able to become the true possessor of his favorite and love.  After this, when the love of the Guru pours on the disciple, grace arises, then the life of the disciple leads to a new birth. The Guru takes pity on those whose mind and body are not fit to hold and receive spiritual powers and give them their worldly splendor;  But those whose condition is worthy of this, they sweep all the rites in the mind of those disciples like dust.  Guru-kripa is a blessing on the disciples.

In order to receive discipleship, we should do their same works with sincerity.  Discipleship comes from Guru remembrance and Guru work.

Why is the rainy season best for Guru Purnima??

All seasons in India have their own importance.  There is a reason why Guru Purnima is celebrated especially during the rainy season.  Because in these four months there is neither excess heat nor excess cold.  This time is favorable and best for study and teaching.  Therefore, the disciples present at Guru's feets choose this time to attain the power of knowledge, peace, devotion and yoga.


Sunday, March 22, 2020

Mahajanpada


Mahajanpada


Mahajanapada literally means great kingdom. They flourished in north / northwestern parts of India before the rise of Buddhism.  The various regions of the Indian subcontinent were first divided into districts, a clear demarcation by boundaries.  Many Janpad of 600 BC further developed into large political bodies.  These states are known as Mahajanapada in Buddhist traditions. India was divided into 16  janpad in the sixth century AD before the birth of Buddha.  We get this information from the Buddhist Anguttar nikaay. State or administrative units in ancient India were called 'Mahajanapadas'.  Some janpad are mentioned in the later Vedic period.  They have been mentioned many times in Buddhist texts.
In the sixth century BCE, Vayakaran Panini mentions 22 Mahajanapadas.  Three of them - Magadha, Kosal and Vats have been described as important.
More information about them is found in the early Buddhist and Jain texts.  Although a total of sixteen Mahajanapadas are named, these nomenclatures differ in different texts.
 Historians believe that this difference is due to changing political circumstances at different times.  In addition, the information of the makers of these lists may also be different from their geographical location.  There are 16 Mahajanapadas mentioned in Mahavastu, a Buddhist text. The Mahajanapadas are mentioned from the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya and the Jain literature Bhagwati Sutra, which has 16 numbers. Of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, Magadha, Kosal, Vats and Avanti were the most powerful. Among sixteen Mahajanapadas, Ashmak was the only a janpad.  Which was located in South India. Gandhara and Kamboj Mahajanapada were located in Pakistan. Of all the Mahajanapadas, the maximum number of (8) Mahajanapadas were in modern Uttar Pradesh. Anga, Vajji and Magadha Mahajanapada were located in Bihar. In the sixth century BC, the first republican state of the world 'Vajji Sangh' also emerged. Malla and Shakya were other important republics in the sixth century BC. They are referred to by Buddhist and other texts as the sixteen great states.  The sixteen Mahajanapadas include Kasi, Kosal, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchal, Machha, Surasen, Ashmak, Avanti, Gandhara and Kambhoj.
The sixteen states named Mahajanapada are found in the early texts of Buddhism and Jainism.  The list of names of Mahajanapadas is not the same in these texts but names like Vajji, Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, Panchal, Gandhara and Avanti are often found. It is known from this that these Mahajanapadas must have been known as important Mahajanapada.  Mostly the Mahajanapadas were ruled by the king, but a group of people ruled in states known as Gana and Sangha, every person of this group was called a king. Each Mahajanapada had a capital which was surrounded by a fort.  The sixteen Mahajanapadas of India date back to the sixth century BCE.  These Mahajanapadas were:
Avanti: The state of modern Malwa, whose capital was Ujjayini and Mahishmati.  Ujjaini (Ujjain) is a major city in the state of Madhya Pradesh.  The Mahabharata describes Sahadeva conquering Avanti. This janpada has been called Malava in the Jain text Bhagwati Sutra.  This janpada broadly included the middle part of present-day Malwa, Nimar and Madhya Pradesh.  According to the Puranas, Avanti was founded by Yaduvanshi Kshatriyas. Fourth century BC  The janpada of Avanti was included in the Maurya Empire and Ujjayini was the capital of the western province of the Magadha Empire.  During the Gupta period, Chandragupta Vikramaditya again conquered Avanti and threw foreign power from there. In the medieval period, this city was mainly called Ujjain and it is described as a main place in the province of Malwa.  In the Jain text Vividhairtha Kalpa, the name of the state of Malwa is Avanti.
Mahakala is counted in the Jyotirlingas of Shiva.  For this reason, this city has also been called Shivpuri.  The ancient Avanti was located in the place of present-day Ujjain, this fact is proved by the fact that the river Kshipra which flows nowadays near Ujjain is also mentioned in ancient literature near Avanti.
Ashmak: Patan was the capital of this region situated between the rivers Narmada and Godavari.  In the modern period, this region is called Maharashtra.  In Buddhist literature, this state, which was situated on the Godavari coast, is mentioned in many places. In Suttanipat, Asmak is mentioned on the Godavari coast.  Its capital was at Potan, Paudanya or Paithan (Pratishthanpur).  Panini also mentions Ashmakas in the Ashtadhyayi.  In Sonanandajatak, Asmak is said to be related to Avanti. The king named Ashmak is mentioned in Vayu Purana and Mahabharata.  Probably this district is called Ashmak by the name of this king.  Greek writers refer to the Asscanoe people in northwestern India.  They may have had historical connections with the southern Ashwakas or it may have been the transformation of the Ashwakas.
Anga: Munger and Bhagalpur districts of present-day of Bihar.  In the Mahajanapada era, the capital of Anga Mahajanapada was Champa.  There is an incident in the Mahabharata text that Acharya Drona organized a competition in Hastinapur to demonstrate the war skills of the Kaurava princes.
Arjun emerged as the highest talented archer in this competition.  Karna challenged Arjun to a duel battle in this competition.  But Kripacharya turned it down saying that Karna is not a prince. Therefore, he cannot participate in this competition.  Therefore, Duryodhana had declared Karna as the king of Anga.  At first the Anga was under Magadha but later Bhishma won the Anga, it came under Hastinapur.
Kamboj: In ancient Sanskrit literature, there are many references about the Kamboj states or the Kamboj resident here, which shows that the country of Kamboj was largely from Kashmir to Hindukush. In Valmiki-Ramayana, the best horses of Kamboj, Valhik and Vanayu states are described to be in Ayodhya.  According to the Mahabharata, Arjuna had defeated the residents of Dardistan as well as the Kambojas in the context of Digvijaya Yatra in his north direction. In the Mahabharata it is said that Karna reached Rajpur and won the Kambojas, its proved that Rajpur a city of Kamboj.  In the Vedic period, Kamboj was the center of Aryan culture as indicated by the mention of vansh-Brahmin, but over a period of time, Kamboj came to be deemed out of Aryan-culture when Aryanism advanced towards the east. Yuvanchwang has also described Kambojas as uncultured and with violent tendencies.  According to Rajpur, Nandinagar and Ricedevies of Kamboj, the cities named Dwarka are mentioned in the literature. The Mahabharata describes several kambojas kings, among whom Sudarshan and Chandravarman are the main ones.  This republic would have merged under Chandragupta's empire in the Mauryan period.
Kashi: Another name of Varanasi, 'Kashi' was famous as a janpada in ancient times and Varanasi was its capital.  This is also confirmed by the travelogue of Fahian, a Chinese traveler visiting India in the fifth century. It is mentioned in the Harivanshpurana that the descendant of Pururava who settled 'Kashi' was King 'Kash'.  Hence their descendants are called 'Kashi'.  It is possible that on the basis of this, the name of this district is named 'Kashi'.  A mythological myth associated with naming Kashi is also available. It is mentioned that Vishnu called this area a free zone after the fall of Parvati's Muktamaya Kundal and named the shrine Kashi due to its inexplicable ultimate light. It is said that Kashi is situated on the trident of Lord Shankar, that is why it is considered an area outside the earth.  It is also said that the entire earth is destroyed during the Holocaust, but the city of Kashi is safe due to Shankar being on the trident.
Kuru: Modern Haryana and Delhi included the western part of the Yamuna River.  Its capital was modern Delhi (Indraprastha).  An ancient state whose north part of the Himalayas was known as 'Uttar Kuru' and the south part of Himalayas as 'South Kuru'. According to Bhagwat, Yudhishthra's Rajsuya Yajna and Shri Krishna married Rukmini here.  A son of Agnidh was named 'Kuru', a famous Chandravanshi king mentioned in Vedic literature.  Generally, the children of Dhritarashtra are known as 'Kaurava', but the descendants of Kuru were both Kaurava-Pandavas. Famous janpada of ancient India, whose position was in present day Delhi-Meerut region.  In the Mahabharata period, Hastinapur was the capital of Kuru-Janpad district.  It is known from the Mahabharata that the ancient capital of Kuru was Khandavaprastha.  It is known from many accounts of Mahabharata that Kurujangal, Kuru and Kurukshetra were the three main parts of this vast janpada. The main Kuru janpada was near Hastinapur (District Meerut, U.P.).  It was situated to the south by Khandava, to the north by Turdhan and to the west by Parinah.  It is possible that these were the names of various forests.  The Kuru janpada included the present Thanesar, Delhi and the northern Ganges Dwaba (part of the Meerut-Bijnor districts). In the Mahabharata, the Indian Kuru-Janapadas have been called Dakshina Kuru and they are also mentioned along with the North-Kurus.  According to Mahasut-Som-Jataka, the expansion of Kuru district was three hundred Kos. It seems that after this period and as a result of the increasing power of Magadha, which was fully developed with the establishment of the Maurya Empire, Kuru, whose capital was flew into the Ganges in the time of Hastinapur King Nichakshu, which was left by this king, made his capital in Kaushambi which is part of Vats janpada and gradually merged into the trough of forgetfulness.
Kosala: Famous district of Northern India, whose capital was the world-famous city of Ayodhya.  Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh included the areas of Gonda and Bahraich.  It was located in the coastal region of Saryu (a tributary of the Ganges river) flow area. The Vedashruti River flowed on the southern border of Kosala state during the Ramayana period.  Sri Ramachandraji crossed the Kosala border before crossing the Gomti River on his way to the forest from Ayodhya. The passage of Vedashruti and Gomti is mentioned in Ayodhya Kand and after crossing the Sayandika or Sayi River, Shri Rama showed Sita the land of the prosperous (Kosal) kingdom given to many Janpadas left behind and given to Manu through  Ikshvaku. During the Ramayana period, this country was divided into two districts - north
 Kosal and South Kosal.  Rani Kaushalya of King Dasharatha was probably Rajakanya of South Kosala (Raipur-Bilaspur district, Madhya Pradesh).  Ayodhya was a very prosperous city during the Ramayana period. In the Mahabharata, Bhimsen's Digvijay Yatra mentions the defeat of Kosala-Naresh Brihadbal.  The sixth and fifth centuries BC  Kosal was a powerful kingdom similar to Magadha, but gradually the importance of Magadha increased and with the establishment of the Maurya Empire, Kosal became a part of the Magadha Empire.
Gandhara: Western region of Pakistan and eastern region of Afghanistan.  Many times people make the mistake of linking it to modern Kandahar which was actually located some south of the region.  The main center of this region was modern Peshawar and the surrounding areas. The principal cities of this Mahajanapada were - Purushpur (modern Peshawar) and Taxila was its capital.  It existed from 600 BCE to the 11th century.  By the 13th century, the Indian name of Yunnan was Gandhar.  The mention of this region is found in the inscriptions of Mahabharata and Ashoka. According to the Mahabharata, the queen of Dhritarashtra and mother of Duryodhana was the princess of Gandhari Gandhar.  Nowadays it is the region of Rawalpindi and Peshawar districts of Pakistan.  Taxila and Pushkalavati were famous cities here. After being a part of Ashoka's empire, it remained under Persian and Kushan kingdom for some time.  In the historical follow-up, Kautilya has been described as the jewel of the Taxila university. Ayodhyapati Ramchandra ji's brother Bharata conquered the Gandharva country and settled the towns of Taxila and Pushkalavati at the behest of Kekay-Naresh Yudhajit.  During the Mahabharata period, the Gandhar country had a close relationship with Hastinapur.  Gandhari, Dhritarashtra's wife, was Rajakanya of Gandhar.  Shakuni was her brother.
Chedi: Presently the area of ​​Bundelkhand comes under it.  The ancient name of the area between the Ganges and the Narmada was Chedi.  It was also among the sixteen Mahajanapadas mentioned in Buddhist texts.  Once upon a time Shishupala was the famous king of this place.
He was about to get married to Rukmini that Sri Krishna kidnapped Rukmini, only after that when Shree Krishna was given the first place in Yudhishthra's Rajasuya Yajna, Shishupala strongly condemned him.  On this, Shri Krishna killed him.
The present-day Chanderi town in Gwalior region of Madhya Pradesh is said to be the capital of the ancient Chedi state.  The Chedi janpada in the Mahabharata, along with many other janpada, has been counted among the contemporary janpada of Kuru. The residents of Chedi janpada have been praised in Karnaparva.  During the Mahabharata, Krishna's rival Shishupala was the ruler of Chedi.  Its capital is said to be Shuktmati.
Vrijhi: The Buddhist Republic of North Bihar, which has been called Vrijji in Buddhist literature.  In fact, this republic was part of a state-union with eight other members (Attakul) of whom Videha, Lichhavi and gyaatrikagana were famous. During the Buddha's lifetime, the struggle continued for many days in the Magadha emperor Ajatshatru and the Republic of Vrijji.  According to the Mahavagga, two of Ajatashatru's ministers Sunidh and Varshakara (Vasakara) had built a fort at Pataligram (Pataliputra) to stop the invasions of the Vrijjis. The Mahaparinibban Sutant also describes the opposition of Ajatashatru and the Vrijjis.  Vajji is probably a variation of Vrajhi.  Vajri's nomenclature in the opinion of Bulhar, Ashoka's inscription no.  Is in 13.  The Jain Tirthankara Mahavira was the prince of the Republic of Vrijji.
Vats: Allahabad and Mirzapur districts of modern Uttar Pradesh used to come under it.  The capital of this district was Kaushambi (district Allahabad Uttar Pradesh). The name of Vatsa state is also mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana that while going to Ramchandra forest with the same effect as Lokpal, crossing the Mahanadi Ganga soon reached the rich and happy Vatsa state. This explanation proves that during the Ramayana period, the river Ganges flowed on the border of Vatsa and Kosala janpadas.  At the time of Gautama Buddha, the king of the Vatsa janpada was Udayan, who married Vasavadatta, the daughter of the avanti-king Chandapradyot. At this time Kaushambi was counted among the great cities of northern India.  According to the Mahabharata, Bhimsen had conquered the Vatsa land in the context of Digvijay of the east.
Panchal: is the ancient name of the region enclosed by the districts of Bareilly, Badaun and Farrukhabad in western Uttar Pradesh.  It was spread in the Gangetic plain between Kanpur to Varanasi.  It also had two branches - the first branch was Ahichatra, the capital of north  Panchal and the second branch was Kampilya, the capital of South Panchal. Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas, was also called Panchali for being the princess of Panchal. The Satapatha Brahmin mentions a city named Panchala's Parivaka or Parichaka, which according to Weber is the Ekachaka of the Mahabharata.
Panchal was the collective name of five ancient clans.  They were Kivi, Keshi, Srnjaya, Turvasas and Somak.  Panchalas and Kuru janpadas used to fight with each other.  It is known from the Adiparva of Mahabharata that Dronacharya, the guru of the Pandavas, with the help of Arjuna, defeated Panchalaraja Drupada and left only South Panchala (whose capital was Kampilya) and took over North Panchal. Thus during the Mahabharata period, Panchal was situated on both the northern and south banks of the Ganges.  Drupada previously lived in the city of Ahichatra or Chhatravati.  Draupadi's Swayamvara described in the Mahabharata Adiparva took place in Kampilya.  Bhimsen, in his former country Digvijaya Yatra, in many ways understood and convinced the Panchal residents.
Magadha: was the most powerful janpada in northern India during the Buddhist period and later.  Its position was largely in the state of South Bihar.  The modern Patna and Gaya district were included in it.  Its capital was Giriwarj .  Brihadratha and Jarasandha were the previous kings of Lord Buddha here. It was located in southern Bihar which later became the most powerful Mahajanapada of North India.  The range of Magadha Mahajanapada extended from the Ganges in the north to the Vindhya Mountains in the south, from Champa in the east to the Son River in the west.  The ancient capital of Magadha was Rajagriha.  Later, the capital of Magadha was established in Pataliputra. In the Magadha state, the then powerful state of Kaushal, Vatsa and Avanti was merged with his janpada.  Thus Magadha expanded into Akhand Bharat and the history of ancient Magadha became the history of India. The area of ​​Patna and Gaya district was known as Magadha in ancient times.  During the time of Gautama Buddha, Bimbisara was ruled in Magadha and then his son Ajatshatru.  At this time, there was a lot of conflict with the Kosala janpada and Magadha, although the daughter of Kosal-King Prasenjit was married to Bimbisara. As a result of this marriage, Magadharaj janpada of Kashi was received as a dowry.  After them, during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka, the power of the influential kingdom of Magadha reached its peak of glory and Pataliputra, the capital of Magadha was the focal point of political power across India. The importance of Magadha remained even after this for many centuries and at the beginning of the Gupta period, the capital of the Gupta Empire remained in Pataliputra for a long time.  Bimbisara is considered the de facto founder of the Magadha Empire. Bimbisara made Girivraj (Rajgir) his capital.  It expanded its empire by adopting its policy of matrimonial relations (Kaushal, Vaishali and Punjab).
Matsya: This included the areas of Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur districts of Rajasthan.  A famous janpada of the Mahabharata period, whose status has been considered in the variable state of Alwar-Jaipur.  Virat ruled this janpada and its capital was in a city called Uppalav. Virat Nagar was the second major city of Matsya janpada.  Sahadeva conquered the Matsya state in his Digvijay Yatra.  Bhima also conquered the matasyas.  The Pandavas spent a year of their unknown abode in the Matsya country by staying with Virat.
Malla: It was also a federation and its territories were areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh.  The first definite mention of Malla country is probably in Valmiki Ramayana in such a way that Ramchandra ji settled Chandrakanta in the land of Malla country for Lakshmana's son Chandraketu which was divine like heaven. There are many mentions in the Mahabharata about the mahajanpada of Malla.  Buddhist literature describes the two capitals of Malla janpada as Kushavati and Paava.  There are many references to the rivalry of the Mallas and Lichchhavis in Buddhist and Jain literature. During the political rise of Magadha, the janpada of Malla could not stand in front of the expanding power of this empire.  The fourth century BC  Chandragupta merged into the great empire of Maurya.
Shursen: Shursen Mahajanapada was the famous janpada of North-India with its capital at Mathura.  The region was probably named after Shatrughna, the ruler of Madhurapuri (Mathura),  after the slaying of Lavanasura. Shatrughan was named this janpada his son Shursen. Shursen had established a new city in place of old Mathura, which is described in the Uttarkand of Valmiki Ramayana.  The Mahabharata mentions the victory of Sahadeva over the Shursen-Janpad.  In the Vishnu Purana, the residents of Shursen are probably called Shur and they are mentioned with Abhiras.


Saturday, March 7, 2020

✡️What is Vyuh(array)?

✡️What is Vyuh(array)?

 In ancient times, a vyuh of military operations was created by the commander in war so that the  easily entered into the enemy army zone and king &chief generals could be captured or killed.

In this, their entire army is arranged in a special shape or property with the name of the vyuh (array). This type of the vyuh composition ,even the smallest army starts to look huge and can face the biggest army.
Vyuh design is called the position of soldiers in a particular order for war. Vyuh is mentioned in the mythological text Mahabharata.  In the war of Mahabharata, many types of "Vyuh"were composed by Pandavas and Kauravas. Vyuh means "a swarm of soldiers" or "a part of the army."


 While creating a vyuh, thats had to keep in mind what the army's spread should be?  How should the various army-departments be divided?  That is, what number of divisions should be located in each place, which commanders should stand and conduct military operations, in which main places, etc.
To much thinks of all these things was to keep an efficient arrangement of both attack and defense operations. It was the main purpose of construct a vyuh. In the war, the armies of both sides created vyuh and each other side by bringing them into the vyuh and defeated the warriors .

The following were the vyuh created by the Pandavas and Kauravas in the Mahabharata war.

 1. Chakravyuh
 2. Vajravyuh
 3. Crouch vyuh
 4. Ardhchandra vyuh
 5. Mandal vyuh
 6. Chakrasakat vyuh
 7. Magar vyuh
 8. Aurmi vyuh
 9. Garuda vyuh
 10. Srinagantaka vyuh
 11. Sarvatomukh vyuh

1.  Chakravyuh

 Everyone has heard about it.  It was composed by Guru Dronacharya on the thirteenth day of the war.  Duryodhana was just in the middle of this chakravyuh. But the seven maharathis were in different layers of this vyuh. Jayadratha was at the entrance of this vyuh.  Only Abhimanyu was able to penetrate this vyuh.  But he could not cross the last gate ... and later he was murdered by 7 maharathis. Some more information about this vyuh will be found later.

2.  Vajra vyuh

 On the first day of the Mahabharata war, Arjuna decorated his army in the shape of this vjra.  It used to be like Vajra of Indradev to see its shape, so this type of vyuh is called "Vajra vyuh"!

3.Crounch vyuh

 Crouch is a bird.  Which is called Demoiselle Crane in modern language. It is a species of stork. This vyuh is shaped like this bird. On the second day of the war, Yudhishthira suggested the Panchal son to decorate the Pandava army with this same crounch vyuh ... King Drupada was on the head of this bird, and Kuntibhoja was in place of its eyes.  Arya Satyaki's army was at its neck.  Bhima and Panchal sons were in place of its wings. The five sons of Draupadi and Arya Satyaki were deployed under the protection of its wings. In this way we can see that this vyuh was very powerful and effective.  Pitamah Bhishma himself decorated his Kaurava army with this vyuh.  Bhurishrava and Shalya were protecting its wings.  Somdatta, Ashwatthama, Kripacharya and Kritavarma were handling the various parts of this bird.

4.  Ardhchandra vyuh

 It was composed by Arjuna in response to the Garuda vyuh of Kauravas. Panchal Son assisted Arjuna in creating this vyuh. It had Bhima on its right side. It had armies of Drupada and Virat naresh in its upward direction. Just ahead of them were the Panchal sons, Neel, Dhritaketu, and Shikhandi. Yudhishthira was in the middle of it. Satyaki, Draupadi's five sons, Abhimanyu, Ghatotkacha, Kokay Bandhu were to the left of this array and Arjuna were himself with Sachchidananda Swaroop Bhagavan Sri Krishna on the front.

5.  Mandal vyuh

 Bhishma Pitamah had decorated the Kaurava army by this mandal vyuh on the seventh day of the war.  It was formed in circular form.  This was one of the most difficult vyuh, but still the Pandavas broken  it by the Vajra vyuh.

6.  Chakrasakat vyuh

 After the killing of Abhimanyu, when Arjuna was annihilated to take the life of Jayadratha, Guru Dronacharya composed this vyuh to protect Jayadratha on the fourteenth day of the battle!

7.  Magar vyuh

 The vyuh was shaped like a crocodile.  On the fifth day, soon after sunrise, Bhishma, the grandfather of the Kauravas, created this vyuh.  With a large army, they moved towards the Pandavas and started raining arrows.  Satyaki stopped Dronacharya.  Bhishma forced Satyaki to flee the battle

8.Aurami vyuh

 Aurami refers to the sea.  This vyuh looked like the waves of the sea.  In this vyuh , the enemy used to have confusion about the army's actual capability.

9. Garuda vyuh

 On the third day on behalf of the Kauravas, Bhishma created a Garuda vyuh at the battle site.  Instead of the beak in his front, he stood on his own.  Acharya Drona and Kritavarma was in place of both eyes. Ashwatthama and Kripacharya stood in the head.  With this vyuh, Bhishma caused a terrible destruction in the army of Pandavas.  Sri Krishna asks Arjuna to slay Bhishma, but Arjuna was unable to fight with enthusiasm, causing Shrikrishna himself to rush to kill Bhishma.  Arjuna then assures that he will fight the war with full enthusiasm.

10.  Shreengatka vyuh

 Among Pandavas, Arjuna was an expert in creating this vyuh.  This vyuh looked like a building.  It was designed to entice the enemy army into confusion.

11.  Sarvotmukh vyuh

 The Kauravas attacked the Vajra vyuh of Pandavas with sarvotmukh vyuh.  The pandavas suffered heavy losses due to this vyuh built on the orders of Pitamaha Bhishma.  In this vyuh, Pitamah Bhishma himself was at the forefront.
 Kripacharya, Dronacharya, Raja Vahlik, Ashwatthama and Duryodhana at the back with him.

Some more vyuh received from various sources

Shaktavyuh, Garbhavyuh, Suchivyuh, Ardchandravyuh, Sarvottabhadravyuh, Makravyuh, Sarpavyuh, Mandlavyuh, Sheyavanvyuh, Trishulvyuh, Satrachakrachakravyuh, Padmavyuh and Kashyapuvyuh .

1- Shaktvyuh-

  This vyuh is like a square box.  There are five stops in this.  First of all there is a contingent of 20000 foot soldiers.  After that a troop of 5000 chariots. In the midst of this vyuh, the king lived there with his chief minister,commander and chaturangani Sena (Chaturangani army is four types of army in which foot soldiers, horses , elephants and chariots). After this, a contingent of 1000 elephant and 2000 foot soldiers lived there.  At the last stop of this vyuh, there was a contingent of 2100 horses.
 A total of 30100 soldiers were required to build this vyuh. To break this vyuh, if it is attacked simultaneously, it can break the vyuh. This is the only way to break it.

2- Garbhavyuh-

This vyuh is round in shape like a pregnant woman's stomach.  In this vyuh, there would have been 6 rows, but those 6 rows were divided in 3 ways. The first line consisted of 6000 foot soldiers and 4000 horsemen.  There were 10,000 chariots in the second row.  There was Chaturangani army in the third line.  In the last part of the third line, the king and his trusted soldiers lived. In the fourth row, there were 10,000 elephant.  There were 5000 horsemen and 5000 elephant in the fifth row.  The last line consisted of 10,000 foot soldiers. To break this vyuh, a sucivyuh to be created.  If the third line of the garbhavyuh is hit with the help of a suchivyuh, it can be broken. 70000 soldiers were needed to build the garbha vyuh.

3- Suchivyuh-

This vyuh was like a long pointed spear and it had only one line which was made up of an entire Akshohini army. The king used to be right in front of this vyuh, but he was protected by the most feared fighters of the army.  You must be thinking that it would be easier to break this vyuh because the king lives in front of this vyuh. By killing him, the vyuh will be broken but it is not because the most powerful warriors of the army used to protect the chariot in which the king sat.  The only way to break it was that if the horsemen attacked simultaneously on its right and left side, this array would be broken.

4- Ardhachandravyuh -

 This vyuhis one of the most complex vyuhs.  To make this, 6 Akshauhini Army is required.  It consisted of three lines, which remained from the 1-1 Akshauhini Army.
The remaining 3 Akshohini Army used to stay behind it.  Just as an army or someone  headed towards this (half-moon) ardhachandravyuh then the army behind the ardhachandravyuh came in front and surrounded the vyuh or army that entered inside the ardhchandrvyuh. And Ardhchandravyuh became full moon(poornchandravyuh) and killed the army trapped inside.  There was only one way to break this vyuh and that it should be attacked directly from any other side without entering it.

5- Sarvottabhadravyuh -

This is also one of the most complex vyuh.  No one was able to build this vyuh till date because 27 Akshohini Army was required to build it. That means a total of 55 lakh 89 thousand soldiers were needed to make this vyuh.  Because this vyuh was never built, it could not be broken.
Sarvatobhadra means a very different way of looking at the constellations.  As we all know that there are 27 constellations.  This vyuh also had 27 parts that moved forward together, in a single line.
Because this vyuh is never used, there is no description of how to break it and how to trap the enemy inside it.

6- Mkravyuh- 

Mkra means spider.  You may be thinking that this will be a very weak vyuh, but it is not so.  It required 6 Akshauhini Army to build it and just like a spider web has seven rows, it also had seven rows. In the front row, 30000 thousand soldiers used to stand with spears and shields and some soldiers used to stand with ropes.  As soon as someone reached near the first line, the soldiers with the rope made a trap and threw it over them and pulled it inside the vyuh.  Spearmen used to kill them.  There were archers in the second line.
If a very large army attacked in one go, they used fire arrows and surrounded the army in a circle of fire and then killed them.  There was only one way to break this array and that was Kashyap vyuh.  It could only be broken by Kashyap vyuh.

7- Sarpvyuh- 

This vyuh was in the shape of a snake.  At least 1 Akshauhini Army was required to build it.  The specialty of this vyuh was that it used to run like a snake, so no one knew in which direction the vyuh was going. Whatever army came to the  in front of this vyuh, it used to swallow it, meaning that  would take it in like a snake and then kill it.  There was only one way of breaking this vyuh, if it is hit on the head same way, then this snake vyuh is broken.

8- Mandalvyuh - 

This vyuh was like the solar system.  Which had 9 houses.  Similarly, there were 9 rows standing in the shape of 9 planets.  9 Akshauhini Army was required to build it. Just as the sun in the solar system is in the middle and all the houses used to revolve around it, the king used to be in the middle of this vyuh and all the other lines used to revolve around it. Another special thing was that this vyuh was can not broken.

9 - Shyen vyuh -

 This vyuh was never used for attack, it was used only to break the snake vyuh.  Therefore, no more details are available about it.

10- Satrah Chakra Chakravyuh- 

This is one of the very complex vyuh and can also be made with less army.  It consists of 17 chakras.  The king is in the middle of the 17th chakras and the remaining 16 cycles surround him. By this, any large army can be divided into 17 parts and killed.  It cannot be broken by any other vyuh.  The only way to break it is that if the weakest chakra is broken, then this vyuh will be broken.

11- Trishulvyuh - 

This vyuh used to be in the shape of a trident. It required 4 Akshauhini Army to make it. Three Akshauhini army made the tip of this vyuh and the rest of the 1 Akshauhini army used to make handle of trident on which the arrow was pointed. The specialty of this vyuh was that it could attack in three directions at once, and even if one of its tip breaks, it could be attacked with the other two points.  If only one point was left in this vyuh, it could attack.The only way to break it was that if all three points were attacked simultaneously, this vyuh would be destroyed.

12- Padmavyuh (Chakravyuh) -

 Chakravyuh or Padmavyuh is one of the many vyuh (military-structure) mentioned in Hindu warfare / scriptures.
The Chakravyuh is a multi-level defensive military structure which, when viewed from the top, looks like a Chakra or Padma, a maharathi warrior stand every doorway for protect it. This vyuh was used in the Mahabharata to arrest Dharmaraja Yudhishthira by Dronacharya, the chief commander of Kauravas.
It is the most complex vyuh in all vyuhs. It consists of seven chakras which rotate continuously and move forward.  Just like a screw.  But its shape is round. If someone is trapped inside this Chakravyuh and he does not know to leave, then he will be killed because the more he enters inside the Chakravyuh, the more difficult it will become.  The only way to break it is to break the way to enter it.
Abhimanyu tried to do this, but as I have written above, the chakra rotates continuously in two ways.  So at the time when Abhimanyu entered the chakravyuh, his exit was ahead and entry gate was behind and he entered the evacuation route, he faced the strongest warriors before which he was killed.

13- Kashyapvyuh- 

This vyuh is in the shape of a tortoise.  This vyuh is closed with large slopes from all four sides, so it does not affect by  any outside attack. And it can hurt enemies a lot.  But this vyuh is open from the top, so if the arrow is fired from above it, then this vyuh can be broken.

After trying so much, I was not able to get the complete information and the article related pictures could not be found either.  Sorry for this  Thank you


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