Showing posts with label Chhath Puja. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Chhath Puja. Show all posts

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Chhath Puja

Chhath Puja

The Chhath festival is celebrated twice a year with full devotion and faith.  The first Chhath festival is celebrated in Chaitra month and second in Kartik month.  Shashti Chhath of Chaitra Shukla Paksha and Shashthi of Kartik Shukla Paksha are called Kartiki Chhath.  This festival is famous for worshiping Suryadev.

Chhath Puja is an ancient festival celebrated on the sixth day after Diwali.  Chhath Puja is also addressed by the name of Surya Chhath or Dala Chhath.  Chhath Puja is celebrated in various metros of the country including Bihar, Jharkhand, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh.

Although people bow to the rising sun, Chhath Puja is a unique festival that begins with the worship of the at the time of sunset .  The word "Chhath" comes from the abbreviation "Shashthi", which means "six", so this festival is celebrated on the sixth day of the ascending phase of the moon, on the Shukla Paksha of the month of Kartik.
Starting from the Chaturthi of Kartik month, the festival celebrated till Saptami lasts for four days.  The main puja is performed on the sixth day of the Shukla Paksha of Kartik month.
The fast of Chhath Puja is linked to the happiness, prosperity and health of the family.  The main purpose of this fast is to wish for the health of all family members including husband, wife, son, grandson.  The practice of Chhath also provides mental peace.  The regular flow of air during Chhath helps to reduce anger, jealousy and other negative emotions. There are many famous folk rituals of Surya worship in our country which are celebrated in different provinces with different customs.  In many other foreign islands including Mauritius, Trinidad, Sumatra, Java, residents of Indian origin celebrate Chhath festival with great faith and pomp.

“This festival is a day of gratitude to the Sun.  Sun is an integral part of our life.  Sun is the basis of our existence.  Arghya is required in this, that is, to see the sun, it is necessary and it can be done only in the morning or evening.  Now the question arises, how long does one need to see the sun?You hold water in your hands and the water slowly comes out of your fingers, till then the sun is seen.  Seeing the sun provides energy to your body.  Therefore, the puja is performed mainly to express gratitude to the Sun. "

It is believed that the celebration of Chhath Puja is clearly stated in the ancient Vedas, as the rituals performed during worship are similar to the rituals described in the Rigveda, in which the sun is worshiped.  At that time, Rishis were also known to worship the Sun and without getting good intake they received their energy directly from the Sun.
Chhath Puja is mainly celebrated in Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh.  However, now this festival is celebrated in every corner of the country.  According to mythology, it is believed that it was one of the main festivals of Suryavanshi kings of India.  It is said that at one time, an ancestor of Magadha emperor Jarasandha had suffered leprosy. In order to get rid of this disease, the Shakladeshi Magh Brahmins of the state worshiped the Sun God.  As a result, the ancestor of the king got rid of leprosy and since then the morning of Suryopasana has started on Chhath.

It is believed that Chhath Devi is the sister of Suryadev.  Therefore, to appease Chhath Devi on Chhath festival, Sun God is pleased.  Suryadev is worshiped on the banks of the Ganges-Yamuna or any river, the lake. Chhath Puja is also mentioned in Mahabharata.  Kunti, the mother of the Pandavas, worshiped the sun god before marriage and received a son as a blessing, whose name was Karna.  Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas, also performed Chhath Puja to alleviate their suffering.

Bathing and charity are given special importance in Chhath Puja.  According to the Puranas, the day when Lord Rama established the kingdom of Rama after conquering Lanka was Kartik Shukla Shashthi Tithi.  In which Mata Sita and Lord Rama kept a fast and worshiped Lord Suryanarayana.  After this, Saptami was once again performed rituals and took blessings from Lord Surya. There is another legend about Chhath Puja. According to this legend, Sun son Karna started worshiping Sun God.  Karna was a great devotee of Lord Surya.  He used to offer prayers to Lord Surya by standing in water for many hours every day.  He became a great warrior by the grace of Sun God.  For this reason, the Sun was given even today.
It is said that following the advice of the great sage Dhaumya in the Mahabharata period, Draupadi resorted to Chhath Puja to liberate the Pandavas from hardship.  Through this ritual, she was not only able to solve immediate problems, but later, the Pandavas had reclaimed her kingdom in Hastinapur (present day Delhi). It is said that Karna, the son of Surya (Suraj), who fought against the Pandavas in the great war of Kurukshetra, also performed the ritual of Chhath.  Another significance of worship is also associated with the story of Lord Rama.  According to ancient texts, Rama and his wife Sita had fasted and prayed to the sun god in the month of Kartik in Shukla Paksha after 14 years of exile.  Since then, Chhath Puja has become an important and traditional Hindu festival, which is celebrated with enthusiasm every year.

There is also popular belief that worshiping the Sun God also eliminates diseases like leprosy and ensures the longevity and prosperity of the family.  It is done with strict discipline, purity and highest respect.  And once a family starts roof worship, it becomes their duty to pass on the traditions for generations.

Chhath Puja Festival

 1. First day

 On the first day of Chhath Puja, Kartik Shukla Chaturthi is celebrated as ‘Nahai-Khay’.  The house is first cleaned and made holy.  After this, Chhathvarthi takes a bath and starts the fast by taking “pure vegetarian food made in a holy way”.  All the members of the household take food only after the vrati meal. Pumpkin, gram dal and rice are taken as food.  On this day, devotees take a dip in Koshi, Karnali and the Ganges River, and take this holy water home to prepare the prasad.

2. the second day

 On the second day, Karthik, after fasting for the whole day of fasting on Shukla Panchami, takes food in the evening, it is called ‘Kharna’.  All the people around are invited to take 'Kharna' prasad.  Jaggery and kheer(rice pudding)and bread are made on earthen stove in the form of Prasad.
No salt or sugar is used in it.  Brass utensils are used during worship.  Use banana leaves to worship.  During this time special care should be taken on the cleanliness of the entire house.  After taking the offering, they fast for 36 hours without water.

3. the third day

 Chhath Prasad is made on an earthen stove on the third day of Kartik "Shukla Shashthi".  Thekua in the form of Prasad which is also called Tikri in some areas.  Apart from the Thekua, we make rice laddus. Apart from this, cloves, cardamom , pan-betel nut, foregut, gram, sweets, raw turmeric, ginger, banana, lemon , radish and coconut, vermilion and many other fruits are also brought as prasad of Chhath are included. In the evening, after preparing and arranging the  of Aghrya in a bamboo basket, and with fasting, all the family and the people of the neighborhood walk towards the Ghat to give the Aasthachalami sun. All Chhath Vrat gather together on the banks of a holy river or pond and collectively sing the songs of Chhath.  After this, Arghay performs charity.  The sun is given a water's arghay and the Chhathi maiya is worshiped with prasad-filled sup.
During this, the fair becomes visible for a few hours.  After sunset, everyone comes home singing  chhata's song with all the goods and starts another worship process in the courtyard of their house.  Which is called Koshi.
This puja is performed after the completion of a vow or in an auspicious work in some house.  In it, a roof  is made by tying seven sugarcane, new cloth, in which a clay urn or elephant is kept and lamps are lit in it and prasads are placed around it.  All the women sing in koshi puja song and  give thanks to the chhathi maiya.

This festival is not for any particular gender, but both men and women can keep this fast.

When things comes to the beginning of Chhath Puja, there are different views about it.  The first to describe Chhath Puja is found in two stories.  One will be told by Priyabrata, son of Brahmaputra Manu. Apart from this, the most ancient history which is found to keep the fast of Chhath Puja is through Dakshaputri and Devmata Aditi.  Both of these are recognized as the oldest Chhath Vrat.

Prajapati Daksha became the son of Brahma.  His 13 girls were married to Maharishi Kashyap, son of Maharishi Marichi.  It is said that all the species beings were born from Daksha Kanya and Maharishi Kashyapa. Diti was the eldest of the 13 girls from whom all the demons were born.  All the deities were born to Daksha's second daughter Aditi, who was called Aditya.  Thus the demons became the elder brothers of the gods.
with the time, there was growing disharmony among the demons and devas, which eventually took the form of the Devasur struggle.  The demons were naturally more powerful than the gods as well as elusive. Due to the neutrality of the tridevas, the gods could not get their help and in the first Devasur Sangram the gods were defeated.  The demons took possession of all the three worlds including heaven.
Then Aditi, the mother of the Gods, went to Parampita Brahma and told her situation .  Then Brahmadeva asked her to worship the own-generated Devasena, known as Shashti Devi.  Then Mata Aditi worshiped Shashthi Devi for 100 years.
Pleased with her penance, Shashthi Devi appeared to her and asked her to keep a very difficult fast for  4 days.  After the end of that fast, Shasthi devi was pleased and asked her to ask for a boon.

Then Aditi told her situation , on hearing of which Shashthi Devi blessed her with a virtuous son.  As a result of his boon, Mata Aditi received a son with the qualities of Trideva, whose name was Aditya.

This Aditya later became famous as Vivaswan or Surya.  The gods then attacked the demons with Aditya's power together and eventually conquered.
This 4 day fast observed by Mata Aditi is considered as the first Chhath Puja.  Mata Shashthi later started being called Chhath Maiya . Where Mata Aditi had kept this fast, it became famous in the world as Dev Surya Mandir, which is in Dev name village of Aurangabad district of Bihar. Lord Suryanarayana has so much importance in Chhath Puja due to the worship by Mata Aditi and the birth of Aditya.  That is why in Chhath we worship Suryanarayana while setting and rising and thanking him for giving us life.  The significance of this festival is so much that it has been called Mahaparva.
In the Puranas, there has been a reference to Priyabrata for doing this puja for the first time.
Manu became the son of parampita Brahma, who we also know as Swambhu Manu.  Manu married Shatrupa, born from the left limb of Brahmadev, which gave birth to all humans. In the name of Manu, we are called Maanav.  Both had two sons - Priyavrata and Uttanapada.  The son of Uttanapada was the great devotee Dhruva who attained the eternal world by the grace of Lord Vishnu.
Manu's second son Priyavrata had no children.  His wife's name was Malini.  Priyabrata and Malini were very unhappy due to being childless.  Once Maharishi Kashyap came to the kingdom of Priyavrat.  He was the son of Maharishi Marichi and elder brother of Priyavrata and Uttanapada.
Raja Priyavrat and Malini received him with great respect and served him wholeheartedly.  Maharishi Kashyap was very happy with his service, but seeing both of them unhappy, Maharishi Kashyap asked the reason for this.  On this, Priyavrat told him about his childlessness.
Seeing both grief, Maharishi Kashyap decided to perform the Putreshti Yagya for Priyavrat.  In the auspicious time, he started the yagna and by the end of the yagna, Malini became pregnant as a result of the yagna. After that Maharishi Kashyapa blessed both of them and returned to his ashram.  King Priyavrat and Malini were very happy thinking about their son.

But boths happiness did not last long.  When Malini was delivered in the ninth month, her son was born dead.  Seeing this, Priyavrat's grief did  remain and he started wandering here-there with his dead body in son's disconnection.  One day he decided to put an end to his life and ran towards the fire pit to consume himself.
Before they could commit self-immolation, suddenly a celestial plane from heaven descended in front of them and a goddess appeared from it.  Seeing his form and brilliance, Priyavrat asked him to introduce him. Then that goddess said - "O Rajan! I am Devasena, the psyche daughter of the Brahma. I am born from the sixth part of Brahmadev, so I have a name called Shashthi. But why do you want to end your life.

Then Priyavrat told her how his son was born dead.  Hearing this, that goddess touched his son and by her touch, the child immediately became alive and began to cry.  When Priyavrata saw this miracle, he worshiped the goddess in different ways.  The day Devasena had gave  life Priyavrat's son, it was the shasti tithi of Kartik month.

Then Priyavrat told him what else he could serve him?  Then Shashti Mata said that she wants her worship on earth to continue forever.  Priyavrat was a Prajapati, so he made a law for worshiping Goddess Shashthi. First of all, he himself worshiped them by keeping a fast and that order has been going on since then.  Today we know the same Devasena or Shashti Devi as Chhath Maiya.  According to South Indian religious texts, the same Devasena was later married to Kartikeya, the eldest son of Mahadev.

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Spiritual and scientific significance of Chhath Puja.

||  Know, Chhath Puja - Spiritual Science ||

 Chhath or Surya-puja is performed from the Mahabharata period.  It is said that Chhath-puja was started by Suryaputra Karna.  Karna was the supreme devotee of Lord Surya.  According to the Puranas, he used to offer arghya to the sun by standing in the water for hours every day.  He became a great warrior by the grace of Surya.  Another description of Surya Puja is found in Mahabharata.  According to this, Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas, wished for the best health of her family and performed regular sun worship for a long life.

 Chhathpuja is a festival mainly associated with Sun worship, which has a special place in Sanatan Dharma.  Among the deities of Sanatana Dharma, Surya is such a deity that can be seen in tangible form.
 The main sources of Sun's powers are his wife Usha and Pratyusha.  In Chhath, there is a combined worship of both the powers along with the Sun.  In the morning, the first ray (Usha) of the Sun and the last ray (Pratyusha) of the Sun in the evening are offered to both of them.
 Suryopasana Rig has been happening in India since Vedic period.  The Sun and its worship are discussed in detail in Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata Purana, Brahma Vaivarta Purana etc.  By the middle ages, Chhath became revered as the systematic festival of Suryopasana, which is still going on.

 Chhath-festival is of four days.  It starts from the third day of Bhai Dooj.  On the first day, sandha salt, ghee made of arva rice and pumpkin vegetable are taken as prasad.
 Fasting starts from the next day.  Kheer is made at night on this day.  Fasters take this prasad at night.
 Arghya means milk to the sun on the third day.
 Arghya is offered to the rising sun on the last day.  In this worship, purity is taken care of;  Garlic is onion taboos.  It is said in the Bhavishya Purana, that this fast, dedicated to Lord Surya, should be observed on the Shashti Tithi of the Shukla Paksha of each month.  It is said that whatever desire is expressed on the Chhath-festival from Surya and Shashti Mata is definitely fulfilled within a year.

 What to do on this day -

 * Bathing of Ganga is of special importance on this day, the person who cannot go to take a bath in the Ganges, should take a few drops of Ganga water in the bath water at home and take bath.
 * Suryopasana as soon as the sun god rises in the morning.  Keep in mind that do not worship Suryop until Sun God is visible directly.
 * Chant Surya Mantras.
 * Take Panchagavya.
 * Eat salt-free food once a day.
 * Red color is very dear to Sun God, so he is offered saffron, red sandalwood, red flowers, red fruits, gulal, red cloth, red sweets etc.


 Chhath Puja related to science

 * Chhath-Parv is the festival of Sanatan Dharma celebrated on the Shashti Tithi of Kartik Shukla.  The scientific basis behind Chhath-puja is hidden.  Dasual Shashthi Tithi (Chhath) is a special astronomical event.  At this time, the sun's ultraviolet rays collect more than normal on the surface of the Earth.  The ability to protect humans from its ill effects lies in this tradition.  According to this festival, the sun (star) protects organisms from the harmful effects of light (ultraviolet rays).
 * Along with sunlight, its ultraviolet rays also fall on the Moon and Earth.  When sunlight reaches the earth, it first gets atmosphere.  Upon entering the atmosphere, he gets the first Ayan Mandal.  Using ultraviolet rays, the atmosphere synthesizes its oxygen element and converts it into its allotropic ozone.  By this action, most of the sun's ultraviolet rays are absorbed into the Earth's atmosphere.  Only a negligible part of it reaches the surface of the Earth.  Under normal conditions, the amount of ultraviolet rays reaching the surface of the Earth is within the range of tolerance of humans or organisms.

Therefore, it does not have any special harmful effects on humans in normal stages, rather harmful germs die by that sunlight, which benefits human life only.

 From the scientific point of view,

 there is a special astronomical change on the sixth day (Chhath), at this time, the ultra violet rays of the Sun collect more than normal on the surface of the Earth, due to this its possible  The ability to protect humans as much as possible from ill effects is gained.  It is possible to protect organisms from the harmful effects of sun (star) light (ultraviolet rays) from observance of the festival.  Earth's creatures get a lot of benefit from this.  Along with sunlight, its ultraviolet rays also hit the Moon and Earth.  When the sunlight reaches the earth, the atmosphere is first met.  Upon entering the atmosphere, it gets an ion system.  Using ultraviolet rays, the atmosphere synthesizes its oxygen element and converts it into its allotropic ozone.  By this action, most of the sun's ultraviolet rays are absorbed into the Earth's atmosphere.  Only a negligible part of it reaches the surface of the Earth.  Under normal conditions, the amount of ultraviolet rays reaching the surface of the Earth is within the range of tolerance of humans or organisms.  Therefore, it does not have any special harmful effects on humans in the normal state, rather the harmful germs die by that sunlight, which benefits man or life.  The celestial position of the Chhath (at both ends of the equator of the moon and the Earth's traveling plane) reaches the Earth again in greater quantities than the sun's ultraviolet rays, reflected from some lunar surface and some spherical refracted.  Recurring from the atmosphere levels, at sunset and sunrise it becomes even more dense.  According to astrological calculations, this event comes after six days of Kartik and Chaitra month.  Being based on astrological calculations, it is named nothing else but Chhath festival.

Chhath Puja Introduction and Importance.

Mahaparva Chhath Puja is of special importance, know some important things related to this festival.

 Chhath Puja, the Mahaparava of Surya worship, is performed on the sixth day immediately after the five-day Diwali festival.  Preparations for this puja are going on in full swing.  Bihar has been the main center of this festival celebrated in eastern India, but with the passage of time, this festival is being celebrated not only in the whole country but also abroad.  According to the Hindi calendar, this Mahaparava is celebrated from Chaturthi Tithi of Shukla Paksha of Kartik month to Saptami Tithi.  On this festival lasting four days, the whole family gathers together and celebrates it with pomp.  Let us tell you everything related to this festival ...
he beginning of fasting with Nahai-Khay.
 Starting from the Chaturthi date of Shukla Paksha of Kartik month, this mahaparva is known by many names like Chhath Puja, Chhathi Mai, Surya Shashthi Puja Chhath, Chhath Mai Puja, Dala Chhath, etc.  This time Chhath Puja starts from October 31.  On the first day of Chhath Puja, there is a bath.  It is believed that before performing this fast, both body and mind should be clean.  On the day of Nahay-Khay, the devotees take bath and wear new clothes and eat pure satvik food.  On this day, eating gram and lentil vegetables is of special importance.

 Swear on the second day of the fast.  .

 Kharna is to be done on the second day after Nahay-Khay.  On the day of Kharna, the fasters do not eat or drink anything throughout the day.  In the evening, Jaggery Kheer is made as a special offering by fasting stripes.  The Vratis take this prasad after performing the Puja.  The Prasad is given to all the members of the household after receiving the offerings of fasting stripes.  On this day, Vratis also make offerings for the next day's worship.  This time Kharna is on 1 November.

 Arghya to the setting sun on the third day.

The worship of the rising sun has special significance in Hinduism.  But during Chhath Puja, the setting sun is worshiped.  The fasters keep the Nirjala fast throughout the day and prepare for worship in the evening.  In the river or pond, the devotees stand and offer the sun to the drowning sun.  After offering arghya to the Sun, the devotees start preparing for the next day's worship.  This time this arghya will be given on 2 November.

 End of worship on the fourth day.

 The worship ends on the fourth day of Chhath Puja i.e. Saptami Tithi.  The rising sun is worshiped on this day.  The fast ends this time on 3 November.  After worshiping the Sun, offerings are made to the people present there.

 Normally, people consider taking something as inferior, but there is a special tradition of eating offerings after offering arghya in Chhath Puja.  Behind this tradition of asking for prasadam, this belief is also told that it destroys arrogance.  It is natural for everyone to be proud of this great tradition of India.

 Importance of 'Chhath Puja'

 This worship has special significance in Bihar.  This Mahaparava is also known by the names of Chhath Puja, Chhathi Mai Puja, Dala Chhath, Surya Shashthi Puja and Chhath Parv. This festival of four days includes Nahai Khay, Kharana, Sandhya Ghat and Bhorwa Ghat.
 Apart from religious significance, there are a lot of scientific facts associated with these rituals.  During this puja, devotees pray on the river bank during sunrise or sunset.  It has been proved in science that during this time the ultraviolet rays of the sun are very low and it is beneficial for the body to stay in sunlight during this time.

Chhath Puja: narration, history, story, preparation, tradition and greatness

.  "Chhath Puja"

 Thursday 31 October 2019 (Nahai-Khay)

 Friday, 01 November 2019, (Kharna)

 Saturday 02 November 2019, (evening prayer)

 Sunday 03 November 2019, (Morning)

 Chhath is a Hindu festival celebrated every year with great eagerness by the people.  It is a very ancient festival of Hinduism, dedicated to the God of energy, also known as Surya or Surya Shashthi.  People celebrate this festival to thank Lord Surya for getting the blessings of life on earth forever.  People worship Lord Surya with great enthusiasm and pray for success and progress for the good of their family members, friends and elders.  According to Hindu religion, the worship of Surya is related to the treatment of certain diseases like leprosy etc.

 On this day, it is customary to get up early and bathe in the holy Ganga and fast for the whole day, even they do not drink water and stand in water for a long time.  They offer offerings and arghya to the rising sun.  It is celebrated in various states of India, such as Bihar, U.P., Jharkhand and Nepal.  According to Hindu calendar, it is celebrated on the sixth day of the Kartik month (in October and November).
 In some places Chaitri is celebrated a few days after Holi in the month of Chhatra Chaitra (March and April).  It is named Chhath because it is celebrated on the sixth day of Kartik month.  Chhath Puja is very famous in Dehri-on-Sone, Patna, Dev and Gaya.  It is now celebrated all over India.


 Chhath Puja has great importance in Hinduism and it is believed that the king had requested the old priests to come and do traditional worship of Lord Surya.  He recited mantras and sources from the ancient Rigveda and worshiped the Sun God.  The ancient Chhath Puja was performed by the Pandavas and Draupadi of Hastinapur (New Delhi) to solve their problems and regain their kingdom.  It is also believed that Chhath Puja was started by Surya son Karna.  He was a great warrior during the Mahabharata war and was the ruler of Angadesh (Munger district of Bihar).
 On the day of Chhath Puja, Chhathi Maiya (wife of Lord Surya) is also worshiped, Chhath Maiya is also known as Usha in the Vedas.  Usha means morning (first ray of the day).  People pray to the sixth maiya to overcome their troubles as well as to attain salvation or liberation.
 The second historical story behind celebrating Chhath Puja is that of Lord Rama.  It is believed that after 14 years of exile when Lord Rama and Mother Sita came back to Ayodhya and fasted during the coronation, worshiped Lord Surya in the Shukla Paksha of Kartik month.  From that time, Chhath Puja became an important and traditional festival of Hinduism and people started celebrating the same date every year.


 Long time ago, there was a king named Priyavrata and his wife was Malini.  He lived very happily but there was a lot of grief left in his life that he had no children.  With the help of Maharishi Kashyap, he decided to perform a huge yagna for the blessings of children.  Due to the effect of yajna, his wife became pregnant.  But after 9 months they gave birth to a dead child.  The king was very sad and decided to commit suicide.  While suddenly committing suicide, a goddess appeared in front of him.  Devi said, I am Devi VI and whoever worships me with a pure mind and soul, definitely gets a child.  King Priyavrat did the same and he got a beautiful and loving child as a blessing of the Goddess.  Since then, people started celebrating Chhath Puja.


 In the worship of Chhath, every method and legislation has been given importance.  Worshiping material is of special importance in these statutes as well as Chhath Puja is considered incomplete without these materials.  The complete list of the worship material which is important for Chhath Puja is as follows: - Bamboo or Pital Soup, Daura made from bamboo shafts, Dulia and Dagra, Coconut with water, Sugarcane with leaf, Mouth, Sweet potato, Turmeric and  Ginger plant (good if green), pear, lemon big, honey box, betel nut and betel nut, carav, vermilion, camphor, kumkum, rice (Akshat), sandalwood, sweets.  In addition, home-made dishes such as Thekuva, Crispy, Puva, also known as Tikri in some areas, Rice Laddus, also known as Ladua, etc. are included in the ingredients of Chhath Pujan.


 It is believed that a person performing Chhath Puja is separated from his main family for 4 days after the period of abstinence after taking a holy bath.  Throughout the period he sleeps on the floor with a blanket with pure emotion.  It is generally believed that once a family starts Chhath Puja, they and their next generation will have to perform this Puja every year and it can be left only if someone has died in that year.
 Devotees offer offerings to Surya in a small bamboo basket with sweets, kheer, thekua and fruits on Chhath.  Prasad is prepared without salt, onion and garlic to maintain purity.  It is a 4-day festival which includes: -
 On the first day, the devotees bathe in the holy waters of the Ganges early in the morning and bring some water houses to prepare their offerings.  On this day, cleanliness should be done around the house and the house.  They take a time meal, known as pumpkin-rice, which is made in copper or earthen pot using only wood sticks on an earthen stove.
 On the second day (one day before Chhath) on Panchami, the devotees fast for the whole day and in the evening open the fast after the sun sets after the worship of Prithvi (earth).  They offer kheer, puri, and fruits in worship.  After eating food in the evening, they fast for 36 hours without drinking water.
 On the third day (on the sixth day) they offer sandhya arghya at the ghat along the river.  After wearing Arghya, she wears yellow saree.  Other family members wait to receive blessings from Pooja.  The traditional program is celebrated on the night of Chhath by lighting clay lamps covered with five canes on Kosi.  The five sugarcane represent the five elements (earth, water, fire, air and sky) that make up the human body.
 On the morning of the fourth day (Paruna), devotees along with their family and friends offer Bihaniya Arghya on the banks of the river Ganges.  Devotees open the fast by eating Chhath Prasad.


 Chhath Puja has a special significance during sunrise and sunset.  The time of sunrise and sunset is the most important time of day during which a human body can safely receive solar energy without any harm.  This is the reason that there is a myth of giving Sandhya Arghya and Vihania Arghya to Sun in Chhath Festival.  During this period, the level of ultraviolet radiation in solar energy is low then it is safe for human body.  People perform Chhath Puja to thank Lord Surya for continuing life on earth as well as receiving blessings.
 The ritual of Chhath Puja, by purification (body and mind) provides mental peace, increases energy levels and immunity, greatly reduces the frequency of burning anger, as well as negative emotions.  It is also believed that Chhath Puja helps slow down the aging process.  Such beliefs and customs make the Chhath ritual the most important festival in Hinduism.
 "Chhath Puja date in 2019"
 Thursday 31 October 2019 is a day for bathing and eating. (Nahai-Khay)
 Friday, 01 November 2019, is a day of fasting that ends after sunset after a fast of 36 hours. (Kharna)
 Saturday 02 November 2019 is the day of Sandhya Arghya which is known as Sandhya Pujan.  (Evening prayer)
 Sunday 03 November 2019, Sunrise is the opening day of Arghya and Paran or fasting.  (Early morning)


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