Thursday, March 5, 2020

Description of warriors and soldiers of mythological period


Description of warriors and soldiers of mythological period

Army and War. In the imagination of the common man, these two words have been causing oddities since ancient times. Even today, so many battles are being fought in different parts of the world. But presently, humans and machines are working together in war, different story of diplomacy is being written. Today, war is being fought with automatic guns, nuclear bombs, ion dome (which traces the missile in the air) and also destructive weapons. In the coming time, there is talk of replacing the army with robots and if this happens, then run the horse of imagination and think how the army would have been in ancient times? What will people say? What would have been the language of war?
Sanskrit word Sena is the most popular and popular word in Hindi in this sense. The Sanskrit dhaatu se means to bind, fasten, catch , connect, organize, etc. The army is obviously meaningless without unity, affiliation or organization.
According to the famous culturalist Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane's history book of Indian theology, the word Senani has also been mentioned in the Rigveda. In Purana the words Bal and Vahini have also been used in this sense, which continues till today.

According to ancient texts, there are six types of armies - Maul (traditional dynasty), Bhritya(payroll), shreni (Vahini kept by merchants), Mitra (army of friends and feudatories), Amitra (the force which once was possessed in enemies side) and Aatvik (army of wild castes).

Today, there are three major types of any regular army. Water, land and sky. Up to four and eight types of it have been described in ancient times which have been called Chaturangini Sena and Ashtangik Sena respectively. Chaturangini consisted of hasti(elephant) , horse, chariots and padatik (infantry) . Apparently the Chaturangini sena was meant by the Army itself.

The Shantiparva of the Mahabharata mentions eight parts of the army, in which the soldiers in addition to the four parts of Chaturangini, who were not to take salary they used to get only food, were called Vishti. Apart from this, there were sailors, chara( One who keeps wandering) and dashik (Familiar with the location) .who played the role of a pioneer.

The mythological references often refer to the Akshohini sena. According to the Indian Culture Dictionary, there were 109350 infantry, 65610 horses, 21870 chariots, 21870 elephants in the Akshauhini sena which totaled 218700. In the Mahabharata, the Kauravas had eleven and the Pandavas had seven Akshauhini sena. Thus the Mahabharata was of eighteen Akshauhini armies. In the ancient texts and Puranas, a description of the legendary Chaturangini and Akshohini army is found somewhere.

 In the eighth chapter of the first skanda in the Shrimad Bhagwat-Mahapuran, the Akshauhini army is mentioned -

आह राजा धर्मसुतश्चिन्तयन् सुहृदां वधम् ।
प्राकृतेनात्मना विप्राः स्नेहमोहवंश गतः ।।
अहो मे पश्यताज्ञानं ह्नदि रूढ़ं दुरात्मनः ।
पारवयस्यैव देहस्य बहयों मेऽक्षैहिणीर्हताः ।।
श्रीमद्भागवतमहापुराण प्रथम स्कंन्ध अध्या.8-47-48
Sutji tells to the Shounak and others sages that the dharm guru King Yudhishthira, was very much worried about the slaughter of his relatives. He fell under the control of affection and fascination with the unreasonable mind and said - Well, look at this ignorance that has been ingrained in the heart of my evil soul, I have destroyed many Akshohini army for this devilish body for the diet of "jackals & dogs" . The army of the Pandavas was 7 Akshohini and the army of the Kauravas was 11 Akshauhini. Their sum is 18 and the war also lasted only for 18 days.

A similar description of the Akshauhini army is described in the fifty-five chapter of Srivamanapurana -

धूम्राक्ष गच्छ तां दुष्टां केशाकर्षणविहृवलाम्
सापराधां यथा दासीं कृत्वा शीध्रमिहानय।।
यश्चास्याः पक्षकृतः कश्चिद् भविष्यति महाबलः ।
स हन्तव्योऽ विचायैंव यादि हि स्यात् पितामहः।।
स एवमुक्तः शुम्भेन धूम्रोक्षोऽक्षौहिणीशतैः ।
वृतः षड्भिर्महातेजा विन्ध्यं गिरिमुपाद्रवत् ।।
श्रीवामनपुराण अध्याय 55-41-44
Shumbha said that Dhumraksha! You go bring the wicked like a criminal maid ruining draw her hairs and bring it here soon. If someone becomes his mighty and takes his side, then without thinking you kill him there - even if it is Brahma.
On this type order of Shumbha, that great stunning Dhumraksha took 6 hundred Akshohini army and climbed Vindhya mountain. But seeing those Durga there, he said to go to be dazzling eyes, oh fool come, come! Kaushiki! You start to wish to accept Shumbha as your husband, otherwise I will forcefully grab you hair and drag you from here to distraught.

The Chanturangini army consisted of elephant horses, chariots and foot soldiers, all of them combined to form Chaturangini army.

It was necessary to have at least two persons on the elephant. One lived the Mahavat or Peelwan and the other a warrior. Similarly, two people lived in a chariot. One charioteer was another warrior. Two or four horses were used in the chariot.

The special thing is that when the war of Mahabharata must have been fought,

 1. What were they called the army?
 2. How would the army of that era be?
 3. How the army must have been operating?
Shocked! it is a thriller?
 So, today we take you to a period which is actually older than history.
Army is ready in the field. Ranbheri has been played and there are two descendants of the same clan in front of the invincible throne, whose name is Hastinapur.

Elephants, horses, chariots and foot soldiers were the main parts of this army. The special thing is that the army which had all these four parts was called Chaturangini Army.

Between them all there was a measurement of the army which was called Akshauhini.

When Ugrashravaji was telling the Shaunak Rishis about the army of Kauravas and Pandavas, the Rishis asked the meaning of Akshohini army which Ugrashravaji explained in detail. It is described in the second chapter of the Upavaarva, the earlier collection of the Adivaparva of Mahabharata, in verses 21 to 41.
The sages asked — Sutanandan! In relation to the word Akshohini that you have just spoken, we want to hear all the things accurately. How many pedestrians, horses, chariots and elephants are in the Akshauhini army? Let us hear it accurately, because you know everything. Ugrasravaji said

There were four divisions of any Akshohini army:

 Elephant
 Chariot
 Horse
 Soldier

An Akshauhini army was divided into 9 parts:

 (01). Patti : 1 elephant + 1 chariot + 3 horses + 5 foot soldiers

02). Senamukh (3 x Patti): 3 elephant + 3 chariots + 9 horses + 15 foot soldiers

(03). Gulam (3 x Seenamukh): 9 elephant + 9 chariots + 27 horses + 45 foot soldiers

(04). Gana (3 x gulm): 27 elephant + 27chariots + 81 horses + 135 foot soldiers

(05). Vahini (3 x Gan): 81 elephant + 81 chariots + 243 horses + 405 foot soldiers

(06). Pritna (3 x vahini): 243 elephant + 243 chariots + 729 horses + 1215 foot soldiers

(07).  Chamu (3 x Pritna): 729 elephant + 729 chariots + 2187 horses + 3645 foot soldiers

(08). Anikini (3 x Chamu): 2187 elephant + 2187chariots + 6561 horses + 10935 foot soldiers

(09). Akshauhini (10 x Anekini): 21870 elephants + 21870 chariots + 65610 horses + 109350 foot soldiers
Thus in an Akshohini army, the army of elephants , chariots, horses and soldiers was as follows:
 Elephants : 21870
 Chariot: 21870
 Horseman: 65610
 Foot soldier: 109350
 In this, 218700 soldiers of all the four part were equally divided. Each unit had a head.
The protagonists of Patti, Senamukh, Gulam and Gana were generally an Ardharathi.
 The heroes of Vahini, Pritna and Chamu were usually a Rathi.
Anikini was generally operated by a atirathi .
 An Akshauhini army was usually commanded by a maharathi.
The hero of more than one Akshauhini army was a very outstanding warrior, who was a warrior above the Maharathi. Such as Bhishma, Arjuna and Karna.

Legendary Warriors Level

The level of the war skills of mythological history characters, who could fight with many warriors ?
  There have been many wars in Indian mythological history, whether Indra and Vratasur or Dewasur Sangram, Ram-Ravana war or the battle of Kaurava - Pandavas, all the warriors showed their eligibility . These warriors have also been given titles according to their skill, know which character was or how many people were skilled in fighting with warriors ?

This is probably my most ambitious article. We have read many times about the rank of warriors in Ramayana, Mahabharata and other mythological stories. The most common word that appears in these books is "maharathi" and this word has been made so common that for any warrior we use the word maharathi when it was a very big title and only a few selected warriors. Were able to reach the level of the maharathi. Do you know that some qualifications were also required to get these categories? If not, today we will know about the level of the warriors of the mythological period.

Here I would like to specially request that please do not compare the warriors of Ramayana and Mahabharata among themselves. Look at their strength in terms of their counterpart warriors in their era. Otherwise, even the ordinary warriors of the Ramayana period were more powerful than the Maharathi of the Mahabharata period. Similarly, do not compare any deity to an ordinary person. Their force is also in front of them in the context of gods or demons. Also keep in mind that any warrior was certified not only by his physical strength but also by the divine weapons he was received.

Ardharathi:

 Ardharathi was a trained warrior who could use more than one weapon and could face up to 2500 armed warriors simultaneously in battle. Talking about Ramayana and Mahabharata, innumerable Ardharthis took part in these wars. It is noteworthy that while describing the force of the warriors in the Mahabharata war, Pitamah Bhishma counted Karna as an ardharathi and due to this insult Karna vowed that as long as Bhishma Pitamah was alive he would not participate in the war of Mahabharata.

Rathi:

 A warrior who can face two Ardharthis or 5000 armed warriors simultaneously. In addition, he should have "eligibility and skill"use at least two weapons. In the Mahabharata period, except for Duryodhana and Dushasana, all the Kauravas were Rathi . Apart from this, the five sons of Draupadi (Pratibindya, Sutasom, Shrutakarma, Shatanik and Shrutsen), Jayadratha, Shakuni and his sons Uluka, Yuyutsu, Sudakshin, Virat's son Prince Uttara, Shankh, Shatanik and Shwetha. Iravan son of Arjuna, leave Vrissen all the sons of Karna, all the sons of Duryodhana and Dushashan, Susarma, Uttamauja, Yudhamanyu, Jarasandha son Sahadeva, Bahlik son Somdutt, Kansa etc. was counting in Rathi . Numerous rathis took part in the Ramayana, whose detailed narratives are not available. Among the demons were the rathi like Khar and Dushan, Vatapi etc. Among the apes, Gandhamadan, Mend and Dwivind, Hanuman's sons Makardhwaj, Sharabh and Sushen were considered rathi .

Aarthiathi:

 A warrior who specializes in many weapons and can face 12 rathi or 60000 armed warriors simultaneously in battle. In the Mahabharata period, Yudhishthira, Nakula, Sahadeva, Ghatotkacha, Dushashan, Virat, Drupada, Dhritashdhumna, Shikhandi, Karna's son Vrishsen, Madraraj Shalya, Kritavarma, Bhurishrava, Kripacharya, Shishupala and his son Dhritcheketu, Rukmi, Shikhandi, Satishika, also Bhima's uncle Bahlik, Narakasura, Rakshasa Alambush, Pradyumna, Keechak and Alayudh etc. were atirathi. During the Ramayana period Angad, Nal, Neel, Prahst, Akampan, Shatrughna, Bharata son Pushkal, Vibhishana, Hanuman's father Kesari, Tadka and her son Marich etc. were counted in Atirathi.

Maharathi:

 It was probably the most famous title and the warriors who received this title were respected and famous all over the world. The maharathi was a warrior who was adept at operating all known weaponry and in addition to that he had knowledge of some of the divyastra above normal weapons. In battle, the maharathi could face 12 atirathis or 72000 armed warriors. Apart from this, any warrior who had the knowledge of Brahmastra (who was few) was directly in the category of maharathi. Generally, most of the big warriors are called maharathis, but in reality there were few warriors who counted the title of maharathis. In Mahabharata, Duryodhana, Ashwatthama, Bhagadatta, Jarasandha, Abhimanyu, Barbarik etc. are placed in the category of Maharathi. Bhima is considered to be equal to the 18 athirathis, Balarama, Guru Drona, Arjuna and Karna as two maharathis and Pitamah Bhishma is considered equivalent to three maharathis. In the Ramayana period Bharata, Jamwant, Sugriva, Luv, Kush, Atikayya etc. fall under the category of Maharathi. Kumbhakarna is considered as three, Ravana four and Bali and Kartavirya Arjuna are considered as six maharathis. Among the other warriors, there is a slight difference of opinion regarding Lakshmana, Hanuman and Parashurama. In most places, they have got the category of atimaharathi , then in some places they are considered equal to 9 maharathis.

Atihamarathi: 

Warriors of this category were rare. He was called the Atihamarathi who can face 12 Maharathi category warriors, ie, 8640000 armed warriors alone, as well as having knowledge of all kinds of divine powers. In the Mahabharata, there is no authentic reference to the atimaharathi warriors, but in some texts it is argued that Bhishma (owing to the knowledge of Prasavapastra and defeating Parashurama) and Arjuna (due to the knowledge of Pashupatastra) are placed in the category of atimaharathi warriors. There is also no accurate information about Karna (many curses on knowledge of Bhargavastra in addition to Brahmastra), Drona and Balarama. Only in the Ramayana period, Meghnad is undeniably counted in the Atimaharthi as there was all Divyastra that he had  knowledge of, especially that he was the master of the three Mahastras - Brahmastra, Narainastra and Pashupatastra. Except only Pashupatastra, Lakshmana also had knowledge of all the Divyastra and hence he is also placed in this category. Apart from this, the incarnations of Lord Vishnu, especially Varah, Narsingh, Rama, Krishna and sometimes Parashurama are also placed in the category of Atimaharathi. Among the deities, Kartikeya, Ganesha and Indra, Surya, Yama, Agni and Varuna in the Vedic age are also considered to be atimaharathi . The ten mahaavidyas of Adishakti and Rudravatar especially Veerabhadra and Hanuman are also called Atimaharathi.

Mahamaharathi: 

It is considered to be the highest level of any type of warrior. He is called a mahamaharathi who can withstand 24 atimaharathi ie 207360000 armed warriors.
 Along with this, all types of divine and superpowers should be under him. Till date, no warrior or avatar has been of this level on earth.
 One of the reasons for this is that till now, in the 24 atimaharathi , at the same time, there have not been even one in the entire kalpa. Only the trinity (Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra) and Adishakti are considered so powerful.

Detective department

Military intelligence was an important part of the security system in ancient India. In the Mahabharata period, communications were considered a part of the astangik sena of the army. According to the epic, with the help of detectives, the king can destroy the powerful and well-organized army by staying in the fort. They roamed every part of the enemy's country and got knowledge of its status.

Specifically, the military system of the enemy used to locate suitable places for battle, camp land for the army and those unsafe places where a strong and successful attack could be carried out. For this it was also necessary that full knowledge of the morale and loyalty of own army should be kept.


In ancient times, when the internal peace system was often disturbed due to external invasions, the army played an important role. In emergency situations, the king was completely dependent on the army and in a way his self-centered existence depended on the loyal army. Any king
 In the absence of the help of detectives, the enemy cannot be conquered.
Proper and reliable knowledge of the enemy's military bases, military strength, the morale of the subjects, his love and loyalty to the king and preparations for war was necessary. Mahabharata has recommended the use of detectives more and more at many places.
 Along with receiving information, detectives also played a special role in the war period. They were also used to kill unsuspecting enemies who took refuge in a safe place, situated in the fort, by weapons, fire or poison.
its utility, Kautilya wrote that the task which was sometimes impossible for a large army
 That is, a skilled detective can execute spontaneously by resorting to arsenal and poison.
Kautilya, with special emphasis on military intelligence, has considered this process as the only means to destroy the enemy's security formation. Knowing the position of the enemy army through intelligence, its preparedness, the morale of the soldiers, the internal revolution in the enemy country and creating a sense of conflict in the enemy side, the proper and safe places for the own country, army's war work for the protection of  used to be searched.
Keeping every aspect of the power of his enemies in mind, they should use his self-power properly. By finding out all the weaknesses of the enemy, they need to be destroyed.
 While adopting the policy, destroy it with the help of detectives. Detectives used to travel from place to place to get proper information about the enemies.


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